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Full text of "Coins"

GOVEENMENT CENTEAL MUSEUM, 
MADRAS. 



COINS. 



CATALOGUE No. 1. 



MYSORE. 



With Eleven Plates. 



BY 

EDGAR THURSTON, 

SUPERINTENDENT, MADRAS GOVEENMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM. 



MADRAS: 4 
FEINTED BY E. HILL, AT THE GOVEENMENT PEESS. 

[PRICE, I rupee.'} 1888. 



PREFACE. 



IN issuing the present catalogue, I have to gratefully acknow- 
ledge the assistance which I received, in writing the Intro- 
duction, from Mr. Lewis Rice's "Mysore Gazetteer" and 
Colonel H. P. Hawkes* " Coins of Mysore," of which the 
latter, published in 1856, is now very scarce. From both 
these sources I have, in many cases, copied extracts verbatim. 

To Captain R. H. Campbell Tufnell, I am indebted for 
the pains and trouble which he took in correcting and 
revising the proof sheets, and for comparing the inscriptions 
in the text with those on the coins. 

The frontispiece represents in the centre the obverse of 
the medal struck in commemoration of the taking of Seringa- 
patam in 1 799, and above and below, the silver medals struck 
" for services in Mysore " in 1791-2. 

EDGAR THURSTON, 

Superintendent. 

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM, 

MADRAS, 
6th January 1888. 



Pag* 

PREFACE . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 

INTRODUCTION .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 7-16 

TABLE OF MYSORE RAJAHS . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 17 

TABLE OF THE WODEYAR DYNASTY .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 

TABLE OF MUHAMMADAN AND CORRESPONDING CHRISTIAN YEARS .. .. .. 18 

KANTEROY FANAMS .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 19 

HAIDAR FANAM .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 19 

TIPPOO SULTAN GOLD COINS .. .. .. .. .. ,. .. .. 19-2S 

KRISHNA RAJA WOBEYAR GOLD COINS 24 

TIPPOO SULTAN SILVER COINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25-27 

KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR SILVER COINS .. .. . , .. .. .. 27-28 

COPPER COINS WITH CHEQUERED REVERSE . . . . . . . . . . . . 29-32 

TIPPOO SULTAN COPPER COINS . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 33-44 

KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR COPPER COINS . . . . . . . . . . . . 44-50 

ADDENDA .. .. .. .. .. ,, .. .. .. .. .. 51-52 

SUPPLEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53-55 

INDEX OF MINTS .. .. .. .. .. ., .. .. .. .. 57-60 

INDEX OF PLATES .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ,, 61-66 



Nag. 
Kan. 
Eng. 



ABBEEVIATIONS. 



Nagari. 

Kanarese. 

English. 



Au. 
Ar. 
Ae. 



Gold. 

Silver. 

Engish. 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE present province of Mysore long formed part of the empire of 
Vijdyanagar, and the origin of the Mysore Rajas is traced * to the 
heroes of a chivalrous exploit. Vijaya and Krishna, two young 
Kshatriyas of Yddava descent, who, according to tradition, had left 
Dvdraka in Gujarat with the view of establishing themselves in the 
south, on arriving at Hadi-ndd or Hada-nad, a few miles south-east 
of the present city of Mysore, learned that the chief of the place 
had wandered away in a state of mental derangement, and that the 
neighbouring chief of Kdmgahalli, who was of inferior caste, taking 
advantage of the defenceless condition of the family, had demanded the 
only daughter of the house in marriage. To this a consent had been 
given under compulsion, and arrangements unwillingly made for the 
ceremony. The two brothers espoused the cause of the distressed 
maiden, and, having secreted themselves with some followers, fell upon 
the chief and his retinue while seated at a banquet, and slew them. 
Marching at once on Kdrugahalli, they surprised it and returned in 
triumph to Hadanad. The girl became the willing bride of Vijaya, 
who took the title of Odeyar or Wodeyar 2 (" lord "), and assumed the 
government of Hadandd and Karugahalli, adopting at the same time 
the religion of the Jangamas or Lingavantas. 

The immediate descendants of Vijaya are thus given by Mr. 

Bo wring : 

A.D. 

Yijaya 1399-1422 

Hire Bettada Chama Eaja 1423-1457 

TimmaRaja 1458-1477 

Chama Eaja, Ar-beral 3 1478-1512 

Bettada Chama Eaja 1513-1551 

Bettada Chdma Raja divided his dominions during his lifetime 
among his three sons. To Appana Timma Raja he gave Hemanhalli, 
to Krishna Eaja he gave Kembala, and to Chama Eaja, surnamed B61 
or Bald, he gave Mysore, then called Puragere. A fort was either built 

1 Rice, Mysore Gazetteer, 1877, vol. I, pp. 239-40. 

2 TJdaiyar, vidgo Wodeyar or Wodeiyar. 
* Six-fingered. 



8 INTRODUCTION'. 

or restored in the year 1524, to which the name of Mahish-nru 4 
(buffalo town) was probably given, though Rice says (op. cit., p. 241) 
that " reasons have been given for supposing that it may have been 
known by that designation before the Christian era. The vulgar name 
of the place when Chdma Raja received it as his portion was Puragere, 
conjectured to be the same as Pirikere, wherein the Kongu king Avinita 
acquired the recognition of royal rights in the fifth century. It is 
undoubted that for the last three centuries the name Mysore (Mahishur) 
has been the common name of the fort and town erected or repaired by 
Hire Charna Raja." 

Bettada Chdma Raja was succeeded by his son Appana Timma 
Raja, who ruled from 1552-1570, and, no male heir surviving to him 
or his brother Krishna Raja, the succession was continued in the junior 
or Mysore branch represented by Hire Chdma Raja B61, who was 
succeeded in 1576 by Bettada Wodeyar. The latter only reigned for a 
very short time, and in the following year his brother Raja Wodeyar 
came to the throne, and, casting off even the semblance of subjection to 
Vijaynagar, acquired the city of Seringapatam and its dependencies 
from his former master, Vencataputty Rayeel, who resided with scarcely 
a shadow of authority at Chendragerry. 

About this time also the numerous chieftains in the south of India, 
who had hitherto yielded a nominal obedience to Vijdyanagur, profiting 
by the dismemberment of the empire consequent on the battle of Tali- 
kota in 1565, began to assume the name and importance of Poly gars, 5 
the chief among whom were the Polygars of Chittledroog, Raidroog, 
Harponhully, &c. 

Raja Wodeyar was followed successively by Chdma Raja, and 
Immadi Raja who was shortly after his accession poisoned by the 
dalavayi, and Kanthirava Narasa Raja placed on the throne. The 
year after his accession Kanthirava successfully defended Seringapatam 
against the Bijapur forces under Ran-dulha Khan, and subsequently 
carried his conquests over a wide area. He improved and enlarged the 
fortifications of Seringapatam, and was the first Raja of Mysore who 
established a mint, in which was struck the " Agala " or broad Kanthi- 
raya hana (Kanteroy fanam), a gold coin, which was, together with the 
" Gidd " or thick Kanthiraya hana (a re-coinage by Dewan Purnaiya), 
for a long time the established currency of Mysore. 

The Kanteroy fanam bears on the obverse a representation of the 
Narasinga avatar, and on the reverse the symbols of the sun and 

* So called with reference to Mahish asura, the buffalo -headed monster, who was 
destroyed by Chamundi, the tutelary goddess of Mysore. 

' The coins issued by the Polygars are reserved for a future catalogue. 



INTRODUCTION. 

moon (?) bounded by cross lines [PL 1, 1-2] . It appears to be assumed by 
Wilks 6 that a " Cantyrai boon " (Canteroy pagoda) was also struck by 
Kaiithirava, but Hawkes states 7 tbat " the Canteroy pagoda is only a 
nominal coin equivalent to ten fanams or Rs. 2-14-8. There is, however, 
a coin of this name current in the Ceded districts, and valued at about 
three rupees." Further, Eice says, 8 " even after the coins struck by him 
(Kanthirava) had become obsolete, the accounts continued to be kept 
in Kanthiraya varaha and liana the Canteroy pagodas and fanams of 
the English treaties with Mysore and of the official accounts down to 
the time of the British assumption. Kanthi Raya coined fanams only 
(Kanthirdya hana\ but ten of these were taken to be equal to a varaha 
or pagoda, which had, however, no actual existence, but was a nominal 
coin used in accounts only. The Mysore Rajas did not coin varaha or 
pagodas. These were coined by the Ikkeri rulers of Bednur." 

Kanthirava died without issue, and was followed successively by 
Kempa 9 Deva Raja, Chikka Deva Raja, Kanthirava Raja Muk-arasu 10 
and Dodda Krishna Raja, on whose death in 1731 the direct descent 
ended. Chama Raja, a member of the Hemanhalli family; was next 
elected, but being deposed by the dalavayi Deva Raja and the minister 
Nanja Raja, was succeeded by Chikka or Immadi Krishna Raja, and 
Chama Raja who died childless in 1775. Another Chama Raja, son 
of Devaraj Arasu of Arkotar, was then selected at random by Haidar 
Ali Khan, who had usurped the government and was really the ruler. 

Haidar died at the age of eighty in camp at Chittore after a virtual 
reign of nearly thirty years, and was succeeded by his son Tippoo Sultan, 
who, after a reign of sixteen years, was found among the slain at the 
storming of Seringapatam on the 4th of May 1799. 

The coins struck by Haidar were characterised by their general 
rudeness, and by the retention of the Hindu figures on the coins of the 
conquered states ; whilst, on the other hand, Tippoo's coinage is remark- 
able both for the greater number and variety of his gold, silver, and 
copper pieces, and for the superior neatness of the inscriptions. Haidar's 
well-known laxity in religious matters rendered him careless on this 
point, and we accordingly see him, on reducing the neighbouring states 
to subjection, retaining the current coins of the district with their 
representations of heathen gods and goddesses, merely substituting his 

6 History of Mysore, vol. I, p. 32, -ed. II, 1869. 

7 Coinage of Mysore, 1856, p. 3. 

8 Op. cit., vol. I, app., p. 8. 

9 Kempa Deva Raja took the title of "Dodda" (Great) as opposed to "Chikka" 
(Small). 

JJ* The dumb king. He was born deaf and dumb. 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

owu initial for the inscription on the reverse. This was done perhaps 
as much with a view of conciliating his newly-conquered subjects as 
with that of saving time and expense. An illustration of this is seen 
in the gold coin called the Bahdduri or Ikkeri }>a<i<>d<i, the original of 
which was struck at Bednur by the Polygars of Ikkeri, and bore on the 
obverse the figures of Siva and Parvati (Uma and Mahesvara), and on 
the reverse the word ri, an appellation of Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess 
of prosperity, in Xagari. On the conquest of Ikkeri in 1763, Haidar 
established a mint at Bednur, and, erasing the word ri on the current 
coins, substituted his own initial on a granulated surface, still retaining 
the original obverse. This constitutes the old Bahdduri or Ikkt-ri 
payuda u (PI. I, 3-5), and was the first coin struck by Haidar in his own 
name. In process of time, the dies wearing out, new dies were manu- 
factured of precisely the same device, but with an inferior degree of skill. 
Coins struck with these dies are called the IICH- Bahdduri or Ikkeri pagodas. 
The late Raja of Mysore, on his restoration to the throne, effaced 
Haidar's initial, and substituted for it his own name (vide Krishna R&j 
Pagoda, pp. 14 and 24) (PL I, 19). 

The Bahdduri or Ikkeri fanam (PI. I, 7) is of precisely the same 
design as the tiar IkkM pagoda. 

Haidar conquered Calicut in A.D. 1773, but it was again reduced 
by General Meadows with the Bombaj' army after the defeat of the 
Mysore army under Sirdar Khan in 1782. The small gold coin known 
as the Calicut fanam 12 (PI. I, 16, 17) bears on the obverse Haidar's 
initial surrounded by a line and row of dots, and on the reverse the word 
&>>& (Kalikut) surmounted by the date. 

The coins of Tippoo are much more numerous than those of Haidar, 
whose initial he retained on his gold and silver coins struck a long time 
subsequent to his father's death. " This," says Marsden, 13 " is by some 
attributed to a sentiment of filial duty and respect, but we may rather 
conclude that he adopted the term (signifying in Arabic a lion, and by 
misapplication a tiger) as an emblematical designation equivalent to a 
family name. There appears also an obvious allusion to the attribute 
of Haidar, or Asad Allah (lion of God) bestowed upon the Khalif Ali, 
from whom the Sultan affected to trace his maternal descent, and whom 
he considered as his patron and model." 

11 " The Bangalore pagoda was struck by Haidar at Bangalore. It resembles the Bahdduri 
pagoda, but is distinguished by the name of Pedda-talei Bangaloori, or ' big-headed ' 
Bangalore pagoda. None of these coins bear any date." Hawkes, op. cit., p. 5. 

12 Hawkes describes (op. cit.) a Calicut fanam bearing the date 1166. The fanams in 
the Madras Museum collection bear the dates 1198, 1199, and 1215, respectively, and are 
knowi; Calicut fanams. 

Numismat. Orient., 1825. Pt. II, p. 699. 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

With respect to Tippoo's peculiar method of dating his coins, Marsden 
says, u " It will be found to have varied at different periods of his 
reign. From the year after his accession in the year 1197 of the 
He/ rah until 1200 inclusive, he appears to have employed the usual 
Muhammadan era ; but on his coinage of the following year, instead of 
1201, we observe the date 1215, being a difference of fourteen years. 
To discover the principle of this new reckoning seemed difficult, until 
it was observed that on some copper coins of the year 1221 the date 
is accompanied by the word ^^y* signifying from " the birth," and 
upon one of 1222 by the still more express words -x*- ^}y from 
" the birth of Muhammad," which do not leave a doubt of the era being 
intended to date from the time of that event as recorded (although not 
without 'contradiction) by historians." 

One of the first gold pieces struck by Tippoo was the Ahmedi or 
Sultdni gold mohur (PI. I, 8). The Siddki or half mohur is about half 
its value. Tippoo is also said to have coined double mohur s called 
Emaumis. 

Under the general name of Sultdni pagodas are included a number 
of gold coins struck by Tippoo, bearing a general resemblance, but 
differing slightly as regards the mint towns. Thus the pagodas in the 
Madras Museum collection which were struck in 1198, 1199 and 1200 
bear on the obverse Haidar's initial with the word^> (Nuggur) 15 and 
the year of the reign (PL I, 9, 10). In 1216 two types of pagodas 
were issued, one bearing on the obverse Haidar's initial with the word 
j^Uo (Dharicar) and the year of the reign (PI. I, 11) and the other the 
same with the substitution of the words j^o*^ (Fdrukhi Nuggur) for 
jtyn (PL I, 12). 

The pagodas of the year 1221 bear on the obverse Haidar's initial 
with the words && o 5 ^ (Fdrukhi Puttun) 16 and the year of the reign 
(PI. I, 13). The two latter types of coin are known as the Fdrukhi or 
Fdrok/n. pagodas. 

Tippoo's Sultdni fanams are of two kinds, the aval or first, and 
duyam 17 or second, the words aval and duyam pointing to the difference 
in their sizes. The latter is sometimes called the Gidd fanam. They 
bear on the obverse Haidar's initial and on the reverse the inscription, 
e>*> **/* (struck at Puttun) and the date (PI. I, 14). 

14 Op. cit., p. 700. 

" The name of Nuggur or Nagar was given to Bedonore by Haidar when he annexed 
that province to the usurped sovereignty of Mysore, and it is by Mussulmans colled 
< r, or Haidar Nugger ; but the Ca II ii by its old name Bednore, or rather 

Bednoor." Moor, Narrative of Little's T>ota<'hinent, 1794, p. 477. 

16 Puttun = Seringapatam. 

17 n^etn. Hawkes, op. cit., p. 6. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Nuggitr Salay fanam was minted by Tippoo at Bednur and bears 
on the obverse Haidar's initial and on the reverse the inscription j& vy> 
(struck at Nuggur) with the date (PI. I, 15). 

The Dhofie fanam (PI. I, 18) bears Haidar's initial on the obverse, 
and the word es^T* (Furhi) 18 with the date on the reverse. It is said to 
have derived its name from the fanciful resemblance of Haidar's initial 
to the hook used in gathering fruit. But the same would apply 
equally to numerous other coins bearing a similar mark. 

The Sijed Salce fanam bears Haidar's initial on the obverse and the 
inscription <&>\ ^^- vy> (struck at KlidlakJicibdd) with the date on the 
reverse. The name Khalakhabdd was given by Tippoo to the town of 
Chandagal near Seringapatam. 

The following list of gold coins issued by Haidar, Tippoo and 
Krishna Raja Wodeyar is extracted from Rice's Table of Mysore Q-old 
Coins 19 : 



Name. 


By whom coined. 


Where coined. 


Earliest 
date. 








A.D. 


Bahadur! hun 


Haidar Ali 


Bednur 


1763 


Do. 

Sultani hun 
Kuki Sultani hun 


Do. 

Tippu Sultan 
Do. 


Bangalore 
Seriugapatam, &c. 
Do. 


1783 


Faroklii hun 


Do. 


Do. 




Krishna Raja Varaha . . 
Kalikat liana 


Krishna Raja 
Haidar Ali 


Mysore 
Calicut 


1811 
1773 


Addakalikat hana 


Do. 


Do. .. 




Sultani Kalikat hana . . 
Sultani hana (aval) 
Do. (duyam) . . 
Nagar Sale hana 
Dhoti hana do. 


Tippu Sultan 
'Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Do 

Seringapatam . . 
Do. 
Bednur 


1778 
1786 


Say ad Sale do. 
Badshahi do. 
Chick Ballapur hana . . 
Ahmadi or Sultani 


Do. 
Haidar Ali (?) 
Do. (?) .. 


Chandgal 





Ashrufi 
Iniauii (double mohur) . . 
Sidaki (half mohur) 


Tippu Sultan 
Do. 
Do. 


Seringapatam . . 


1783 



18 Marsden says (op. cit., p. 717), "the word ,-&* ferkhi or ferrokh I might seem 
to be intended for the name of the coin, but others of the same minute description, 
bearing the date of 1218, do not contain this word, and on some of the copper money wo 
shall find it to stand apparently for the name of a place, otherwise called Now Calient," 
which was, according to Wilks, a fort near Calicut named Ferrfn-h l-e. Dr. Piidi. ,1. As. 
Soc., Benq;., vol. LI., pi. T, 1883" ini-lines to tin- belief that "th'' torm was originally 
adopt" 1 ! as ;\ pious token of report for one of Muhamin . 'juently 
in some cases did double duty by expressirg this and also the place of mintage. " 

19 Op. cit., app., p. 2. 






INTRODUCTION. 



13 



The silver coins struck by Tippoo were 

1. The Haidari, Nokara, or double Sultani rupee (PL II, 1-3). 

2. The Imami or single rupee (PL II, 4). 

3. The Abidi or half rupee (PL II, 5). 

4. The Bakhri or quarter rupee (PL III, 2, 3). 

5. The Jazri 20 or two-anna piece (PL III, 4). 

6. The Kazmi or one-anna piece (PL III, 5). 

7. The Kizri or half-anna piece. 

The following is a table of Tippoo's silver coins as given by Bice 21 : 



Name of coin. 


Mint. 


Earliest date of 
coin. 








A.D. 


Nokara (double rupee) . 


. . 


Seringapatam 


1784 


Sultani rupayi . . 


. . 


Do. 


,, 


Do. Adha rupayi (^ 


r.) .. 


Do. 


,, 


Bakri ,, ( 


r.) .. 


Do. 


1789 


Jasri ,, ( 


r.) .. 


Do. 


. . 


Kajmi (iV 


r.) . . 


Do. 


1794 


Kizri ,, ,, (sV 


r.) .. 


Do. 





Copper coins struck prior to the Muhammadan usurpation seem to 
have generally borne an elephant on the obverse, with crossed lines on 
the reverse (PI. IV, 20). To this was subsequently added the symbol 
of the moon placed above the elephant, and later still that of the sun 
was -also inserted (PL IV, 21, 22). 

Haidar probably made simple recoinages of these, but Tippoo's 
currency was much more extensive and consisted of : 

1 . A half paisah, bearing the figure of a lion or tiger on one side, and 
a battle-axe on the other. Marsden says 22 that this coin seems to have 
been the pattern piece of a coin that did not afterwards become a part 
of the currency. The specimen (PL X, 8) in the Madras Museum collec- 
tion, which was obtained at Bangalore, differs in some trifling points 
from those figured by Marsden 23 and Moor. 24 

2. The Mashrabi, Mushtan, Double Paisah or Dub, which has on the 
obverse an elephant carrying a flag, and an inscription on the reverse. 
The coin struck in the year 1219 (PL VI, 1) has the word ^U-ic (Usmdni) 
on the reverse inter alia. On coins bearing the dates 1222, 1224 and 
1225, the word ^j^ (Nanltrabi) or ts^r^ (Mmhtari} (PL VI, 3) appears 
on the reverse, and coins dated 1222 are inscribed with the word 



20 Jdfari. Marsden, op. cit., p. 720. 22 Op. cit., p. 725. 
J1 Op. cit., app., pp. 6, 7. M Op. cit., Pi. XL VI, Fig. MXLIX. 

" Op. cit., PI. I, Fig. 13. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

(Miiludi) on the obverse (PI. VI, 3). The flag on the coins of 1224 
bears the numeral \ (altf) (PI. VII, 2) and on the coins of 1225 the 
numeral ^ (/*') (PI. VII, 5). 

3. The Zahra, Zohra, Single Paisah or Dub. 

4. The Itahrdm, Half Paisah or Dub. 

5. The Akhter, Quarter Paisah or Dub. 

The xiiuj/e, half and quarter Paisaha of 1224 bear the numeral^ over the 
elephant on the obverse in lieu of the date, those of 1225 and some of 
1222 the numeral v> and those of 1226 the numeral <*> (te). 

The object of these numerals is not apparent, but it is suggested by 
Marsden 25 that they may have reference to the system of depreciation 
which the coinage in some parts of India is liable to after the lapse of 
the current year. 

The fact is mentioned by Buchanan 26 that the value of his different 
coins was frequently changed by Tippoo in a very arbitrary manner. 
When he was about to pay his troops, the nominal value of each coin 
was raised very high, and kept at that standard for about ten days ; 
during which time the soldiers were allowed to pay off their debts at 
the high valuation. After this the standard was reduced to the proper 
value. 

Two coins, which are not in the Madras Museum collection, are 
mentioned by Marsden 27 viz., a minute coin intended for a half Akhter 
or eighth part of a peisah, bearing on the obverse an elephant with the 
letter **> and on the reverse the denomination of the money, being a 
word that may be read s-ak* (katib), but is by no means distinct ; and 
another coin of octagonal form, having on one side the word vV (nawab) 
with some additional characters not legible, and on the other fif4> 
(Trichinopoly ?) as the name of the place, with the date 1207. 

As bearing indirectly on the subject of Tippoo's coinage, the fact is 
worthy of mention that Tippoo imitated the mark of the East India 
Company on its coins, and placed it on his muskets and cannon, substi- 
tuting the letters of his father's name j > cs C for the usual V.E.I.C. 
(PL X, 11). 

On the death of Tippoo in 1799, the British Government restored the 
Hindu Raj and placed on the throne Krishna Eaja Wodeyar, son of the 
last Chama Eaja, during whose minority Purnaiya acted as regent. 

The Bahaduri pagoda was changed by Krishna Raja, the figures of 
Siva and Parvati being retained, but the Nagari inscription " Sri Krishna 
Rdja " substituted for Haidar's initial (PI. I, 19). 

15 Op. cit., p. 723. Ie Journey to Mysore, vol. I, p. 129. 

* 7 Op. cit., p. 725. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

His silver coinage consisted of : 

1. A rupee, half and quarter rupee, bearing an inscription in Hin- 
dustani on the obverse and reverse, which were originally coined by 
Purnaiya, but afterwards recoined by Krishna Raja (PL III, 6-9). 

2. A quarter rupee bearing on the obverse the figure of Chamundi, 
and on the reverse the date and inscription ^ ^_ s ^^ y ^> ^ } g^ ^-^(Kishen 
Raj Wodeyar: struck at Mahisur) (PL III, 10, 11). 

3. The Adda or half fanam (PL III, 12), 

4. The Haga or quarter fanam (PL III, 13). 

The two latter coins bear on the obverse the figure of Chamundi, and 
on the reverse the Kanarese inscription Mayili hanna. They are also 
known as the large and small Mayili 28 or Cali fanams. 

On the accession of Krishna Raja, a small copper cash was struck 
bearing on the obverse an elephant with the symbols of the sun and 
moon, and on the reverse the Nagari inscription &ri Krishna Edja 
(PL IX, 3). 

The next coinage bore the same obverse with the addition of the 
word n ; while the reverse bore the inscription " F." " X." or " XX 
Cash" (Eng.) " May Hi kdsu 5," " 10 " or " 20 " (Kan.) (PL IX, 5-7). 

A later coinage had the English characters of the reverse below the 
Kanarese ; and still later the word Chd (in Kanarese for Chamundi) 
was added above the inscription on the reverse, and in a subsequent 
issue the entire word Chamundi (Kan.) was inserted above the elephant 
on the obverse, and the word Krishna (Kan.) added to the inscription 
on the reverse (PL IX, 8). 

The next step was the substitution of the lion of Chdmundi for the 
elephant, and the modification of the inscription on the reverse, which 
now stood as follows on the 25 cash pieces : in the centre Krishna (Kan.) 
surrounded by the inscription " XXV Cash " (Eng.), " Zerb Mahisur" 
(Hind.), " Mat/Hi kasu 25 " (Kan.) (PL X, 1). The smaller coins had 
merely the word " Krishna " (Kan.), " Zerb Mahisur " (Hind.), together 
with the numeral 5 or 10 in later issues. 

The following list of coins, issued by Krishna Raja Wodeyar, is 
given by Rice. 29 



28 Rice says (op. cit., app., p. 7) " The meaning of the word Mayili is not very clear. 
It may be connected with an old Kannada word Muyyi, signifying token, exchange ; unless 
it refers in any way to Mayiliapur (St. Thome) at Madras." 

23 Op. cit., app., pp. 2-7. 



INTRODUCTION. 



Name of coin. 


Mint. 


Earliest 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


Krishna Raj Varaha . . 


M\ - 


1811 


( L T ma and ^ 
I Mahesvara. ) 


Sri Krishna Raja. 


Raja rupayi . . . . 


inga- 


1800 


. . 






im. 








Do. ardha rupayi (J- r.) 


Dn. .. 








Do. pavali ,, (J r.) 


'TO. . 


1828 


Figure 

imiu'li surmuihl- 
. lot*. 


Nishfti Raj Wodeyar, ^'</., 
'.fa /tirl Muhi- 
snr ; SUIT, lundi-d by dots. 


Do. Adda (J fanam) . . 


Do. .. 


. . 


Figure of Cha- 


Mayili hitnna. 








mundi. 




Do. Haga (i ).. 


Do. .. 





Do. 


Do. 


Kasu or Ane kasu . . 


Do. .. 


After 


hunt with 


Sri Krishna Ituja. 






1811 


sun and moon . 




Mayili kasu 


Do. .. 




Do. with 


r.X. or XX Cash (Eng.), 






than 


Sri above. 


' -'/Hi kasu 5, 10, or 






above. 




(Kan.) 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Do. 


Do. 


'i knsu 5 (Kan.) 










Qg-)' 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Do. 


Do. with 


Krishna (Kan.) Mayili 








Sri Chdmun- 


kasu ipattu (Kan.) XX 








di above. 




Do 


Do. .. 


Do. 


Lion of Chi- 


A" AT <'nsh 








mundi, Sri, 


(Eng.) Zarb Muhisur 








sun and moon 


Mayili 25 kasu 








above. 


(Kan.) 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Do. 


Do. 


Krishna (Kan.) Zarb Mahi- 










(Hind). 


Do. 


Do. .. 


Do. 


Do. with date 


Do. do. 








1843 below. 





The copper mint was removed from Mysore to Bangalore in 1833 
and abolished in 1843. Since 1863 the native copper coins, though still 
current among the people, have ceased to be issued from the public 
treasuries, and are thus being gradually withdrawn from circulation. 
Many specimens, however, of the copper coins of Tippoo and Krishna 
Raja Wodeyar can still be obtained in the bazaars at Bangalore, 
Mysore, Seringapatam, &c. 

Rice says, 30 " The following coins now (1877) in circulation are 
those of British India, together with a few native copper coins which, 
however, are being withdrawn and sold, and broken up as old copper : 



Pie or cash. 
duddu, 2 pies. 
J anna, 
i do. 
I do. 
anna. 

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM, 

MADRAS, 
6th January 1888. 



Copper Kasu 
Do. Duggani 
Mur kasu 
Duddu 
Ardhane 
Ane . . 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Silver Doddane . . 
Do. Pavali . . 
Do. Ardha rupai. 
Do. Eupai . . 



2 annas. 
J rupee. 
| do. 
rupee. 



EDGAR THURSTON, 

Superintendent. 



^ Op. cit., app., p. 8. 






TABLE OF THE MYSORE RAJAHS. 17 



TABLE 



OF 



THE MYSORE BAJAHS. 81 



Name. Date of reign. 

Vijaya 1399-1422 

Hire Bettada Chama Eaja 1423-1457 

TimmaEaja 1458-1477 

Chama Eaja, Ar-beral 1478-1512 

Bettada Chama Eaja 1513-1551 

Appana Tiinrua Eaja .. .. .. 1552-1570 

Hire Chama Eaja, B61 1571-1575 

Bettada Wodeyar 1576-1577 

Eaja Wodeyar 1578-1617 

Chama Eaja .. 1617-1636 

Immadi Eaja .. .. .. .. .. 1637-1638 

Kanthirava Narasa Eaja .. .. .. 1638-1658 

Dodda Deva Eaja .. .. .. .. 1659-1672 

Chikka Deva Eaja 1672-1704 

Kanthirava Raja, Muk-arasu .. .. 1704-1714 

Dodda Krishna Eaja 1714-1731 

Chama Eaja . . . . . . . . . . 1731- .. 

Chikka or Immadi Krishna Eaja .. .. 1734-1766 

Chama Eaja 1766-1775 

Chama Eaja 1775-1796 

Aluhammadan Usurpation, 1761-1799. 

Krishna Eaja Wodeyar 1799-1868 

Chama Eajendr a Wodeyar .. .. .. 1868- .. 

Kice, Op. cit., vol. I, p. 240. 



18 



TABLB OF THE WODEIYAR DYNASTY OF MAISUR. 



TABLE 



OF 



THE WODEIYAE DYNASTY OF MAISUR. 32 



Name. 

Rdj "Wodeiyar 
Cliama Raja IV 
Iinmadi Raja 
Kaiithirava Narasa Raja 
Kernpa Deva Raja . . 
Chikka Deva 
Kantlifrava Raja II 
Dodda Krishna Raja 
Chaina Raja V 



Date of reign. 
1578-1617 
1617-1637 
1637-1638 
1638-1659 
1659-1672 
1672-1704 
1704-1714 
1714-1731 
1731-1733 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE DATES ON THE COINS 
OF TIPPOO SULTAN, AND THE YEARS OF THE 
CHRISTIAN ERA. 



Huhammadan. 


Christian. 


Huhammadan. 


Christian. 


1198 


.. 1783-84 


1220 


1791-92 


1199 


. . 1784-85 


1221 


1792-93 


1200 


.. 1785-86 


1222 


1793-94 


1215 


.. 1786-87 


1223 


1794-95 


1216 


.. 1787-88 


1224 


1795-96 


1217 


.. 1788-89 


1225 


1796-97 


1218 


.. 1789-90 


1226 


1797-98 


1219 


.. 1790-91 







82 Elliot, Numismat. Orient., 1885, p. 104. 



ItANTEROY FANAM. 



19 



GOLD : PRIOR TO MUHAMMADAN USURPATION. 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



KANTHIRlVA NARASA RAJA. 
KANTEROY FANAM. 



Seringapatam. 

Seringapatam. 
Seringapatam. 
Seringapatam. 

1179. 



Figure of tlie Narasinga 

Avatar. 

Same as 1. 
Same. 
Same. 



Symbols of sun and 
moon (?) 

[Pi. I, i.] 



Same as 1. 
Same. 
Same. 



[Pi. 1, 2.3 



FANAM OF HAIDAR. 
Haidar's initial : sur- 



rounded by a ring of 
dots. 



surrounded by a ring 
of dots. 



GOLD : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION. 



Bednur. 

Bednur. 
Bednur. 

Bednur. 

Bednur. 



BAHADTJRI OR IKKERI PAGODA. 



The figures of Siva and 
P.irvati (Uina and 
Maliesvara). 

Same as 3. 
Same. 



Haidar's initial on a 
granulated surface. 



[Pi. 1, 3.] 



Same as 3. 



Same. 



[Pi. I- 4.3 



[PI. I, 5.] 



BAH^DURI OR IKKERI FANAM. 



The figures of Siva and 



Parvati (Lima 
Mahesvara). 

Same as G. 



and 



Haidar's initial on a 
granulatod surface. 



Same as 6. 



20 



TIPPOO SULTAN : GOLD COINS. 

GOLD : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



No. Hint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Seringapatam, 
1219. 



AHMEDI OB StTLTlirf MoHTJR. 



"The religion of Mu- 
hammad is made 
trious in the world by 
the victory of Haidar. 
ii.' Ahmtdt. Struck 
at Puttun - in the year 
of the cycle Za^a>j 
year (of the new era) 
1219 :" encircled by a 
ring of dots. (Marsden). 



"He is the only just 
Sultan. Third (day of 
tlie monih) L'a/- : 
year of tl >'<///< : 5 

year of the reign 9:" 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. (Marsden). 



[Pi. I, 8.] 



SIDAKI 6 on HALF GOLD MOHUB. 



v\v\ 



JL, 



Same as 8, but bearing 
the name Sidiki and 
the year 1217 of the 
cycle Sirdb (see foot- 
note, page 25). 



Same as 8, but bearing 
year of the reigu 7. 



1 Haidar' s initial. 

2 " The word /^5j > [Pultun or vulgarly Patan\ signifies the 
city per excellentiam and is meant to denote Seringapatam, 
the capital of the Mysore dominion." Marsden, op. cit. 
p. 710. 

"Seringapatam" (says Buchman, op. cit., vol. I, p. 62) 
is commonly called Patunti or Pat an, i.e., the city ; but the 
name used in our maps is a corruption from 
the city of Sri Ra(/., from its containing a temple dedicated 
to Vishnu under that name. 

3 O^oj Zabarjad = a Topaz. The names of the years of 
the cycle mentioned by Marsden as occurring on Tippoo's 
mbhurs or half mohurs are : s->\*~> sirdb, \j& shitti, ^v?; 
zalarjad, and i^. &aJ;h . See supplement. 

4 "The third day of Kahari or second month of the 
calendar is the day of Tippu's accession, on which li : 
limself Sul; the 4th of May 1783 A. D., 
it which period Tippu was flushed with the vi< ;,.ry recently 
ibtained over a British army on the Malabar coast." Mars- 
den, op. cit., p. 710. 

5 *~. Sakh, lit. beads, i.e., of glass, is here made to signify 

37. 

6 This c'fnn is referred to as the - 

ilitl: . ts of the Madras 

Mint in the early purt wf the } .:;ury. 



TIPPOO SULTAN : GOLD COIN*. 

GOLD : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



21 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Ee verse. 



Bednur, 1198. 



10 



11 



12 



Beclnur, 1199. 



Bednur, 1200. 



Dharwar, 1216. 



13 



Bednur, 1216. 



14 



Bednur, 1216. 



PAGODA. 



" H. 1 Nuggur. (Year 
of the reign) 2 " on 
a granulated surface, 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 

Same as 9 ; but year 3. 



Same ; 2 but year 4. 



'H. Dharwar? (Year 
of the reign) 6 " on 
granulated surface : 
surrounded by lined 
circle and rin^r of dots. 



\ y& 



" He is the just Sultan. 

Year hejirah 1198:" 

surrounded by lined 

circle and ring of dots. 

[Pi. 1, 9.] 

Same as 9 ; but year 
1199. 

Same ; but year 1200. 

[Pi. 1, 10.] 



"Muhammad. He is 
the just Sultan. Year 
1216: " surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 

[Pi. 1, 11.] 



FARUKHI PAGODA. 



' FdrtiMn* Nuggur. H. 
Year 6 : " surrounded 
by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 



Same as 13. 



' Muhammad. He is 
the only just Sultan. 
Year 1216:" sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 

[PI. 1,12.] 

Same as 13. 



1 Haidar's initial. 

2 A copper coin of the same type was struck, of which 
the only specimen seen by me is in the cabinet of Captain 
Tufnell. AMI. 

3 A Farukhi pagoda was struck by Tippoo in which the 
word j\.~. jk^5.,.=- (Shorshid-sudd) is supposed to stand for 
Dharwar. 

4 " Farukhi is the appellation given in Tipu's nomencla- 
ture to the small gold coin that has already been noticed as 

aha, him, or pagoda of the preceding 

lit It is the quarter part of the Ahmedi." 

" "With rc-.pcct to the name of Muhammad which appears 
at the top of the inscriptions it is evident that it cannot be 
]il:iecd in the construction assigned to it in describing the 
a rupee of 1215, and I am led to think that, notwith- 
standing the disjunction of the words it should be under- 
! to follow the word year, and to designate the new 
era." Marsden, op. cit., p. "1C. 



22 TIPPOO SULTAN : GOLD COINS. 

GOLD : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



No. 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Eeverse. 



15 



16 



16.1 



Seringapatam, 
1221. 



Seringapatam, 
1221. 

Dharwar, 1217 



17 



18 

19 
20 



Seringapatam, 
1217. 



Seringapatam, 
1219. 



Seringapatam. 
Seringapatam. 



FAKUKHI PAGODA continued. 



\\ 



" FdrfiMi Ptittim. 1 H. 

1 1- 11 :" surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 

Same as 15. 



Fdnikh i Kl* o rs hid- * u - 
ad* Year 7 :" sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



Same as 13, but date 
1221. 



[PI. 1, 13.] 

Same as 15. 
Same : but date 1217. 



[Pi. i. e.j 



SULTAXI FANAM (Tnrx). 



Haidar's initial sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



Same as 17. 



"StruokatPttttwn,1217:" 

surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 
[Pi. 1, 14.] 

Same as 17 : but date 
1219. 



SULTAN! FANAM (Tnics). 



Same as 17. 
Same. 



Same as 17: but date 
illegible. 

Same. 



1 Haidar's initial is combined in this coin, with the word 
Pttttun. 

- " The new name which Tippu hns given, we nnder- 
stand, to Darwar, but we do not : i it any ai; 

to existing eiivin; ; any direction in the appli^ 

than v. i from whim ai: 

Ju&.i. ' the .-<un," prefixed to j>\^ which i 
darkni ]>opulation, &c., may have 

a vaii' 
and p inscription may be translai 

ircumference," alluding to the circular figure of 
the die. We a: o^ does not also 

signify light or splendour: < may gi\ 

divers meanings, but should not. ,' them hit 

upon that which was intended." Moor, op. cit., upp. 
p. 478. 



TIPPOO SULTAN: GOLD COINS. 
GOLD : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



23 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Bednur, 1199. 



Bednur, 1220. 



Calicut, 1215. 



Calicut, 1215. 



New Calicut ? 
1216. 



New Calicut ? 
1217. 



1 NUGGUK FAN AM. 



Same. 



Same. 



" Struck at Nuggur, 
1199:" surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 

[PI. I, 15.] 

Same as 21 : but date 
1220. Beading from 
1 to r. 



Same. 



CALICUT FAN AM. 



W\ 



Same. 



"KaUMt* Year 1215 " 
(reading from r to 1) : 
surrounded by lined 
circle. 

[Pi. 1, 16.] 



Same as 23 : but date 
reading from 1 to r. 

[Pi. 1, 17.] 



DHOTIE FAN AM. 



Same. 



Same. 



" Furrokhi. 1216: " sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 

[PI. 1, 18.] 

Same as 25 : but date 
1217. 



1 The " Nuggur Salay " fanam of Hawkei. 
3 Kulkkoot. Moor, op. cit., p. 478. 



24 



KRISHNA RAJA WODETAR : GOLD COINS. 



GOLD : KRISHNA B-iiA WODEYAR. 



No. 


Mint : 1 


Obv< 


Reverse. 






GOLD : KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR. 






KRISHNA RAJ PAGODA. l 


27 


Mysore. 


The figures of Siva and 
Piirvati holding trisula 
and deer : emblems of 
sun and moon above. 


" &rl Krishna ltdja" 
(Nag). ' 


28 


Mysore. 


Same as 27. 


[PI. 1, 19.] 

Same as 27. 


29 


Mysore. 


Same as 27. 


Same as 27. 


1 Also called Kurtur Ikkeri pagoda. "The name Kur- 
tur was given, to the reigning I.'aj.-i of Mysore to distinguish 
him from the head of another brunch of the family called 
also Raja, but having in addition the title of Dalawai." 
Buchanan, op. cit., vol. I, p. 46. 






TIPPOO SULTAN : SILVER COINS. 
SILVER : MlTHAMMADAN USURPATION. 



25 



No. Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Serin gapatam, 
1200. 



2 Seringapatam, 
1216. 



Seringapatam, 
1217. 



NOKRA OR DOUBLE SULTANI EUPEE. 



} > j 



"The religion of Mu- 
hammad is made illus- 
trious in the world by 
the victory of Haidar. 
H. Struck at Puttun in 
the year of the cycle 
da hi; l year hejirah 
1200 : " surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



" The religion of Mu- 
hammad is made illus- 
trious in the world by 
the victory of Haidar. 
H. Haidari? Struck at 
Puttun in the year of 
the cycle Sard : 4 year 
(of the new era) 121 6: " 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



^j^**- C v^~- j 

v\v\ +~ ^\ r JL, 

Same as No. 2 : but year 
of the cycle Sirdb : 6 
year (of the new era) 
1217. 



JL. ^J'M^ 

He is the only just 
Sultan. Third (day of 
the month) Buhuri ; 2 
year of the cycle fudu ; 
year of the reign 4 :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



[Pi. II, i.] 



He is the only just 
Sultan. Epoch of the 
accession in the ) - ear 
Sakh : third (day of the 
month) Bahdr'i : year of 
the reign 6 : " sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 

[PI. II, 2.] 



t- 

^-Jit-. V <JU> 

Same as No. 2 : but year 
of the reign 7. 

[Pi. II, 3.] 



1 The name of the cycle is here Jj dald, a water-bucket 
or the sign of the Zodiac Aquarius, the letters of which 
produce the number 40. The names of the years of the 
cycle on Tippoos's silver coins are : 

J;\ dzal, bt-jalti, jjj dalfa, \& shd, \.L. s&rd, and ^r* 
sirab. See supplement. 

2 V. ant. p. 20, foot-note. 

3 The word ^Ju*- Haidari is one of the names which 
was given to this coin. 

* ' ' The word \.L Sard means odoriferous, and is produced 
by adding together ^ 30, \ 1, \ 10, and again \ 1, which 
make up the number 42." Marsden, op. cit., p. 703. 

5 The word s-U~. Sirab means "the undulating refraction 
of the sun's rays striking on a sandy plain " (mirage). 



26 TIPPOO SULTAN : SILVER COINS. 

SILVER: MriiAMMAiux USURPATION continued. 



No. Mint : 



Reverse. 



Seringapatcun, 

1216. 



4.1 



4.2 



Seringapatam, 
1216. 



Seringapatam, 
1216. 



Seringapatam. 



Seringapatam, 
1216. 



IMAM! OR SULTANI RUPEE. 



_ 

JL. 



' He is the only just 
Sultan. Epoch of the 
--ion in the year 
Sakh. Third (day of 
the month) J> 
Year of the reign 6:" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



[Pi. II, 4.] 
Same as 4. 



" The religion of Mu- 
hamuiail is made illus- 
trious in the world by 
the victory of Haidar. 
H. Imdm'i. Struck at 
Puttun in the yoar of 
the cycle Sard : year (of 
the new era) 1216 : " 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

Same as 4. 



The same legends on the 
obverse and reverse as 
those of No. 4.1 ; but 
the coin is much 
thicker, and has a 
plain rim on the face 
instead of a lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



ABID! OR HALF SULTAN! RUPEE. 



Same as No. 4 : but ye 
of the reign 2. 



' ' The religion of Mu- 
hammad is made illus- 
trious in the world by 
the victory of Haidar. 
H. Abidi. Struck at 
Puttun in the year of 

the cycle : year 

(of the new era ....):" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

Same as No. 5 : but year 
1216. 



[Pi. Ill, i.] 

Same : but year of the 
reign 6. 

[PI. II, 5.J 



T1PPOO SULTAN : SILVER COINS. 

SILVER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Seringapatam, 
1217. 



Seringapatam, 
1218. 



Seringapatam, 
1221. 



Seringapatam, 



1221. 



10.1 Seringapatam, 
1221. 



BAKHRI OR QUARTER RUPEE. 



' Muhammad. He is 
the only just Sultan. 
Year 1217:" sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



Same as No. 7. 



Year 7. H. 
Puttun : " surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 

[PI. Ill, 2.J 



Same as No. 7. 

[PI. Ill, 3J 



JAZRI OR Two ANNAS, 



Year of Muhammad, 
1221. Struck at 
Puttun : " 2 surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 



Jazri. Year of the 
reign 11 :" surround- 
ed by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 



[Pi, III, 4.] 



KAZMI OR ONE ANNA. 



' Year of Muhammad, 
1221. Struck at Put- 
tun : " surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



Same as No. 10. 



^ \\ , 

Year of the 
reign 11:" surround- 
ed by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 

[Pi. Ill, 5.] 



Same as No. 10. 



1 " Mahomed Baker was the 4th khalif from Ali, father of 
Imam Jaeffer : and to him Tippoo may, perhaps, desire to 
show sonio reverence ; tut his reverence seems always 
ambiguous : for JSU baker means also abundance of riches, 
excelling hi science, c. " Moor, op. cit., p. 476. 

2 Haidar's initial joined to the word Puttun. 



28 



KRISHNA RAJA VVODEYAR : SILVER COINS. 

SILVER : KRISHNA RAJA WODKYAU. 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obv> 


Reverse. 






ONE RUPEE. 


11 


Mysore. 


4 U ^ -* , 03 X- 


^vf ^^^ 






6\*4,jb /3^ S^A 


" Struck at Mysore in 






"Defender of the Mu- 


the 47th year of the 






hamniadan faith, Re- 


auspicious reign." 






flection of Divine ex- 








cellence, the Emperor 








Shah Alain struck this 








coin to be current 








throughout the s-ven 








climates." 2 (Marsdeii.) 


[PI. III.o.J 


12 


Mysore. 


Same as 1 1 . 


Same as 11 : but ; 








48. 








[PI. Ill, 7.] 






HALF RUPEE. 


13 


Mysore. 


Same. 


Same. 








[PI. 111,8.] 


13.1 


Mysore. 


Same. 


Same. 






QUARTER RUPEE. 


14 


Mysore. 


Same. 


Same : but year 45. 








[PI. Ill, 9. j 


14.1 





Same. 


Same. 


15 


Mysore, 1244. 


Figure of Chamundi : s 


r rt\ rJ~* v> J > f- \\ /.v^>i 






encircled by ring of 


))~ ov* v 9 / 4 jj*y*- 






dots. 


" Kishen Raj JJ r o-/c>/fir : 








Year of the reign 1244. 








Struck at Mysore :" en- 








circled by ring of dots. 








[PI. Ill, 10.] 


16 


Mysore, 1244. 


Same as 15. 


Same as 15. 








[Pi. in, 11.] 






ADDA OR HALF CANTEROY FANAM. 


17 


Mysore. 


Same. 


" May Hi hanna " * 








(Kan). 








[PI. Ill, 12.] 


17.1 


Mysore. 


Same. 


Same. 






1 Onlv a portion of the inscription occurs on each coin. 






2 ""When Timur, establishing his throne in India, over- 






came thekingsof Cashmeer, Bengal, Decan, Gudjraat, Lahore, 






Pnonib. and Paishoor. he united the kingdoms, and 






himself conqueror and sovereign of the seven climai 






countries; which title has been retained by his successors." 






Moor, op. cit., app., p. 47-. 






3 Rala Krishna. Elliot, Xumismat. orient., 1885, p. 106. 






4 V. ant., Foot-note, p. 15. 



KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR : SILVER COINS. 29 

SILVER : KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR continued. 



No. Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Mysore. 
Mysore. 



HAGA OR QUARTER CANTEROY FANAM. 
Same. Same. 



Same. 



Same. 



[Pi. Ill, 13.] 



COPPER : CHEQUERED REVERSE.' 



Gryphon 1. 
Gryphon r. 

Gryphon 1. 
Lion r. 



Prancing horse, 1: encir- 
cled by a ring of dots. 

Fish, 1 : encircled by a 
ring of dots. 

Same. 

Bull, 1, with moon above: 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 

Bull, r, with sun and 
moon above : encircled 
by a ring of dots. 

Boar, r ; encircled by a 
ring of dots. 



Deer, r, with sun and 
moon above : encircled 
by a ring of dots. 

Same. 



Cross lines. 

Single lines at right 
angles, with a cross in 
each interspace. 

[PI. IV, 1.] 

Cross lines with sym- 
bols. 

Double cross lines with 
symbols. 

[PI. IV, 4.] 

Same. 

[PI. IV, 2.] 

Single cross lines. 

[PI. IV, 11.] 

Same. 

Double cross lines with 
symbols. 

[PI. IV, 6.] 

Same. 



Same. 



Same. 



[PI. IV, 3.] 



[PI. IV, 7.] 



Same. 



1 Many of the following coins with chequered reverse do 
not probably belong specially to Mysore, though those 
which bear Kanarese numerals on the obverse have been 
attributed to a Ch&ma Raja. They are introduced here 
for convenience, as they arc very common in the Mysore 
bazaars. 



30 COPPER COINS WITH CHEQUERED REVERSE. 

COPPEK : CHEQUERED REVERSE continued. 



No. 


Mint: Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 


13 
14 

15 


fc 


Peacock, r. 

Peacock, r : encircled by 
a ring of dots. 

Same. 


Same. 

[PI. IV, 8.] 

Same. 

[PI. IV, 9.] 

Same. 


16 
17 


.... 


Bird, r : encircled by a 
ring of dots. 

Figure of Ganesa. 


Same. 

[PI. IV, 12.1 

Same. 


18 





Same. 


Double stamped with 
cmss lines and sym- 
bols. 


19 
20 




Same. 
Figure of Ganesa. 


Double stamped with 
(1) cross lines, (2) 
elephant with trunk 
elevated. 

[PL IV, 10.] 

Double cross lines with 
symbols. 


21 





Figure of Lakshmi : 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 


Same. 

[PI. IV, 14.] 


22 

23 
24 





Figure of Hanuman : 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 

Dagger : encircled by a 
ring of dots. 

Flower : encircled by a 
ring of dots. 


Single cross lines with 
symbols. 

[PI. IV, 15.] 

Double cross lines with 
symbols. 

[PL IV, 13.] 

Same. 






COINS WITH KANARESE NUMERALS. 


25 


.... 


Numeral o (1): encircled 
by a ring of dots. 


Same. 

[PL IV, 17.] 


26 


.... 


Numeral a (2): encircled 


Same. 






by a ring of dots. 




27 


.... 


Numeral 3 (3): encircled 


Same. 






by a ring of dots. 




28 


.... 


Numeral # (4): encircled 


Same. 






by a ring of dots. 





COPPER COINS WITH CHEQUERED REVERSE. 

COPPER: CHEQUERED REVERSE continued. 



31 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






COINS WITH KANARESE NUMERALS cont. 


29 


.... 


Same. 


Same. 


30 


.... 


Numeral _( 6): encircled 


Same. 






by a ring of dots. 




31 


.... 


Numeral ?- (9): encircled 


Same. 






by a ring of dots. 




32 


.... 


Numeral oo (10) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




33 


.... 


Numeral oo (H) ' en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 


[Pi. iv, 16.; 


34 


.... 


Numeral o_5> (12) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. " 




35 


.... 


Numeral oX (15) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




36 


.... 


Numeral c\& (17) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




37 


.... 


Numeral OF~ (19) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




38 


.... 


Numeral ^>o (20) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




39 


.... 


Numeral ^>o (21) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




40 


.... 


Numeral _9_o) (22) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




41 


.... 


Numeral _& 3 (23) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 





32 



COPrER COINS WITH CHEQUERED REVERSE. 

COPPER: CHEQUERED REVERSE continued. 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






COINS WITH KANARESE NUMERALS cont. 


42 


.... 


Numeral ^^ (24) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




43 


.... 


Numeral ^o" (28) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




44 


.... 


Numeral 30 (30) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 




45 


.... 


Numeral 3n (31) : en- 


Same. 






circled by a ring of 
dots. 








ELEPHANT CASH.' 


46 
47 


.... 


Elephant r. 
Elephant r. 


Same. 

[PI. IV, 20.J 

Same. 


48 





Elephant 1, with trunk 
elevated, as in the act 
of saluting. 


Same. 

[PI. IV, 19.] 


49 


.... 


Same. 


Same. 


50 
51 





Elephant 1 : encircled by 
a ring of dots. 

Elephant 1, with moon 
above : encircled by 

dots. 


Same. 

[PI. IV, 18.] 

Same. 


52 


.... 


Same. 


[PI. IV, 21.] 

Same. 


53 
54 


.... 


Elephant 1, with sun and 
moon above: surround- 
ed by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 

Same. 


Same. 

[PI. IV, 22.J 

Same. 


1 Sir Walter Elliot says (Numismat. Orient., 1885. p. 105) : 
"The princes of this dynasty (Wodciyar of }!;. 
to have inherited the ,111 the 
Kongus and the Cheras, for it appears on numerous i i 
which coins are still current in the form of the due paisa or 
small elephant cash." 



TIPPOO SULTAN : COPPER COINS. 
COPPER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION, 



33 



No. Mint : 



Date. 



Observe. 



Reverse, 



Seringapatam. 



Seringapatam. 



Calicut, 1199. 



Bednur, 1199. 



Calicut, 1200. 



Seringapatam, 
1200. 



Seringapatam, 
1215. 



COINS WITHOUT DATE. 
TlGEE CASH. 1 



Tiger r : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 



Battle-axe : surrounded 
by lined circles and 
ring of dots. 

[Pi. X, 8.] 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r : surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 



Same as 2 : but wanting 
the ring of dots. 



" Struck at Puttun :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

[Pi. v, U 
Same as 2. 



COINS WITH DATE. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r : encircled by 
ring of dots. 



Elephant r. 



Elephant r: date 1200 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles. 



" .. 99. Struck at Kati- 
Mt :" encircled by a 
ring of dots. 



"1199. Struck at Nug- 
gur" 

[PI. VIII, 1.] 



"Struck at 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 



HALF PAISAH. 
Elephant 1 : date 1200 



above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 



" Struck at Puttun :" 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of 
dots. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant 1: date 1215 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 



Same as 7. 



1 There is in the collection of Mr. R. iSewoll a larger coin 
of the same type, but differing as regards the figure of the 
tiger. 

5 



34 TIPPOO M MAN : COPPER OOIHE 

COPPER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



Mint : Date. 



Observe. 



Reverse. 



Seringapatam, 
1215. 



Gooty, 1215. 



Chittledroog, 
1216. 



Nazarbar, 1216. 



Bangalore, 1216. 



Seringapatam, 
1216. 



New Calicut, 121 7 



New Calicut, 1217 
New Calicut, 1217 



COINS WITH DATE cont. 

QUARTER PAISAH. 

Elephant 1: date 121" Same as 8. 

above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 

HAT.F PAISAH. 1 

Elephant 1 : date 1215 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and dots. 



" Struck at Feiz Hisdr :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ornamental 
border. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 

Elephant 1: date 1216 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle. 



Struck at Farakh-ldb- 
Itixdr : 3 surrounded by 
lined circle. 



HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1216 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 

Elephant 1: date 1216 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles. 



Elephant 1 : date 1216 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 



''Struck at Ntnwrl&r :" 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 
[Pi. v, 2.3 



Struck at Bangaliir :" 

surrounded by lined 

circle and ring of dots. 

[Pi. v, 3.] 



Struck at Puttun 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 

Elephant 1 : date 1217 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 



Same as 15. 
Same as 15. 



"Struck at FaraJshi :" 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 

[P1.V.5.] 

Same as 15. 
Same. 



1 "This coin was struck at a place culled Griti, a for- 
tress near the Pennar river, by the Sultan named /'eiz 
Hisdr." Marsden, op. cit., p. 722. 

J " Cuditur in castello abundantijc." Marsden, op. cit.. 
p. 721. 

3 Probably (Jhittledr. ion, op. cit., p. 722. 



TIPPOO SULTAN : COPPER COINS. 35 

COPPER : MOHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



No. Mint : 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



New Calicut, 1217 
Chittledroog. 



Bednur, 1217. 



Islamabad, 1217. 



Calicut, 1215. 



Bangalore, 1218. 



Bangalore, 1218. 



COINS WITH DATE cont. 
HALF PAISAH. 



Same. 

Elephant 1 : date 1217 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and orna- 
mental border. 



Elephant 1 : date 1217 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle. 



Same as 15. 

[PI. V, 6.] 



Struck at Farakh-ldb- 
liimr:" surrounded by 
lined circle and orna- 
mental border. 

[PI. V, 7.] 



" Struck at Nuggur :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

[PI. V, 8.] 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1217 
above : surrounded by 
ornamental border. 



Elephant r : date 1215 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle. 



U 



" Struck at Islamabad :" 
surrounded by orna- 
mental border. 

[PI. V, 9.] 



" Struck at KaliMt :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

[PI. VIII, 2.] 



QTTATER PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1218 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles. 



' Struck at Bangalur :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

[PI. V, 4.] 



EIGHTH OF PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1218 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle. 



Same as 23. 



36 TIPPOO SULTAN : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



No. 



Mint : 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



26 



27 



28 



29 



30 



Chittledroog,1218 



Chittledroog-,1218 



New Calicut, 121 8 



Islamabad, 1218. 



Gooty, 1218. 



Seringapatam, 
1219. 



COINS WITH DATE cont. 
HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1218 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and orna- 
mental border. 



.Lac. 



Same as 25. 



\_..~>>i wJwo 



"Struck at Farakh-ldt- 
himr :" surrounded by 
lined circle and orna- 
mental border. 



Same as 25. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1218 
above . surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 



of dots. 



"Struck at Farakhi:" 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 



EIGHTH OF PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1218 
above : surrounded by 
an ornamental circle. 



!U 



" Struck at Islamabad :" 
surrounded by an orna- 
mental circle. 

[Pi. v. 10.3 



HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1218 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



" Struck at Fen Hisdr :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



DOUBLE PAISAH. 



Elephant 1, with trunk 
elevated as in the act 
of saluting and carry- 
ing a flag marked with 
a star : date 1219 
behind the elephant : 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



Usmdn'i. Struck at the 
capital, Puttun :" .sur- 
roimcled by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



[Pi. VI, 1.3 



TIPPOO SULTAN : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



87 



Mint : 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Chittledroog,1219 



Seringapatam, 



1219. 



Bangalore, 1219. 



Seringapatam, 



1221. 



Seringapatam, 
1221. 



Seringapatam, 
1221. 



COINS WITH DATE cont. 
DOUBLE PAISAH cont. 



Same as 30. 



" Struck at the 

capital Farakh-ldb-hisdr. ' ' 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1219 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring of 
dots. 

[Pi. v, no 



" Struck at Puttun :" 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 



HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1219 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles. 



" Struck at Sangalur :" 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1221 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
dots. 



" Struck at Puttun :" 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 



HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1221 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 



" Struck at Puttun :" sur- 
rounded by lined circles 
and ring of dots. 



QUARTER PAISAH. 



Elephant r : date 1221 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 



" Struck at Puttun :" 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 

[PI. VI, 2.1 



38 TIPPOO sri/i AN : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER: Mm AMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 






Seringapatam, 
1222. 



Seringapatam, 
1222. 



Seringapatam, 
1222. 



Bednur, 1222. 



Bednur, 1222. 



COINS WITH DATE eont. 
DOUBLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r, with trunk 
elevated as in making 
a salute and carrying 
a flag with a star in its 
centre : below the flag 
^}y (Mtiludi} : be- 
hind the elephant date, 
1222 : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



Mwhtart. Struck at 
the capital Put tun: " 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



[Pi. VI, 3.1 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant!:, date 1222, 
and inscription ^ ^y* 

X*^y (Jluliifli j/?/- 

hommad} l : surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 

[Pi. VIII, 10.] 



"Zahra* Struck at Put- 
tun :" surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant r: date 1222 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring 
of dots. 



ahram. s Struck at 
Puttun :" surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 



LPl. VI, s.] 



SINGLE PAISAH. 
Elephant 1: date 1222 



above : surrounded by 
lined circle. 



Same as 40. 



" Zahrd. Struck at Nug- 
gur :" surrounded by 
lined cii-cle and ring of 
dots. 

[PI. VI, 4.] 

Same as 40. 



1 V. ant, p. 11. 

2 SjA; Zulrii ' . thr jjlan^t Venus. 

3 (Bahrain], the planet Mars. 



TIPPOO SULTAN : COPPER COINS. 39 

COPPER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



No. 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



42 



1222. 



43 



Seringapatam, 
1223. 



44 



Seringapatam, 
1223. 



45 



Seringapatam, 
1223. 



46 



Seringapatam, 
1223. 



COINS WITH DATE cont. 
QUARTER PAISAH. 



Elephant r : letter s_> 
(be) above: surrounded 
by lined circle. 



Bahrain. Struck at .... 

hisar:" date 

1222 above : surround- 
ed by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 



[Pi. VI, 6.] 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r : date 1223 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring of 



dots. 



[PI. VI, 7.J 



" Struck at Puttun :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant 1: date 1223 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



" Bahrdm. Struck at 
Puttun :" surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 

LPl. VI, 8.] 



QUARTER PAISAH. 



Elephant r : date 1223 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



" AJchter. 1 Struck at 
Puttun :" surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1223 
<_5 ^y* (Muludi} above : 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



J 

" Zahra. Struck at Put- 
tun :" surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 

[PI. VII, 1.] 



Akhter, a star. 



40 TIPPOO SULTAN : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



No. 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



47 



Seringapataui, 
1224. 



48 



Seringapatam, 



1224. 



49 



ftO 



Seringapatam, 



1224. 



Seringapatam, 
1224. 



51 



Seringapatam, 
1225. 



COINS WITH DATE cont. 
DOUBLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r : carrying 
a flag marked with the 
letter \ (alif}: surround- 
ed by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 



" Struck at the capital 
Puttun Muxhlnri : year 
1'2'24, Mftludi:" sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



fPl. VII, 2.1 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r : letter \ (alif) 
above : double stamp- 
ed with lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



Same as 48. 



" Zalira. Struck at Put- 
tun : year 1224, Mulu- 
di:" double stamped 
with lined circles and 
ring of dots. 



Same as 48. 

[Pi. VII, 3.1 



HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant r: letter \ (alif} 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



' Bahrdm, 1224. Struck 
at Puttun:" surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 



[Pi. VII, 4.] 



DOUBLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r: carrying a 
flag marked with the 
letter s- (be}: STirround- 
ed by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 



" Struck at the capital 
Puttun Mmhlan : year 
1225, MilMdi :" sur- 
roundedby lined circle 
and ring of dots. 

[}>]. VII, 6.J 



TIPPOO SULTAN : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



41 



No. Mint : 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Seringapatam, 
1225. 



Seringapatam, 
1225. 



Seringapatam, 
1225. 



Seringapatam, 



1225. 



Bednur, 1225. 



Bednur, 1226. 



COINS WITH DA1E cont. 
DOUBLE PAISAH cont. 



Same as 51. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r : letter ~> (be) 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 

[PI. VII, 6.J 



V) am 

' ' Zahrd. Struck utPuttun. 
Year 1225, Jtfiititclt :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant r : letter v 
(be-) above : surround- 
ed by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 

[Pi. VII, 7.] 



" -Bat rchn, 1225. Struck 
at Puttun:" surround- 
ed by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 



QUARTER PAISAH. 



Elephant r : letter v 
(be) above : surround- 
ed by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 



W Q 

"Akhter. 
Puttun, 



Struck 
1225 



at 
sur- 



rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 

[PI. VII, 8.J 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r: letter s- (be) 
above : sin-rounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



Elephant r : letter u (te) 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



( 

' Zahrd. Struck at 
Year 1225. Midudi - 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



Zahrd. 
J\ T uff(/ur. 



Struck at 
Year 1226. 
surround- 
ed by lined circles and 
ring of dote. 

[Pi. IX, 1.3 



42 TIPPOO SULTAN : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



No. 



Mint : 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Bednur, 1226. 



Seringapatam, 
1226. 



Seringapatam, 
1226. 



Seringapatam, 
1260. 



Seringapatam. 



COINS WITH DATE cont. 
HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant r : letter ^ ( te) 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



nrrt 

" a/tram. Struck at 
1226. M&- 

[Pl.X. 9.] 



UuK 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r : letter **> (te) 
above. 



" Zahra Struck at Puttun, 
1226. Wttudi : " sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



QUABTER PAISAH. 



Elephant r: letter & (te) 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



"Akhter, 1226. Struck at 
Puttun :" surrounded 
by lined circle and 
ring of dots. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r : date 1260 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 

[PI. IX, 2.] 



"Struck at Puttun:" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



COINS WITH DOUBTFUL DATE. 



Elephant r, 



DOUBLE PAISAH. 



trunk 



elevated as in the act 
of saluting, and carry- 
ing a flag marked 
with a star and the 
word ^y* (Multidi), 
date .... : surrounded 
by lined circles and 
ring of dots. 

[Pi X, 10.] 



j 

" Mushtari. Struck at the 
capital Puttun : " sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



TIPPOO SULTAN : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



43 



No. 



Mint : 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



63 



Calicut. 



64 



Chandagal. 



Gooty. 



66 



67 



Gooty. 



Gooty. 



68 



Gooty. 



COINS WITH DOUBTFUL DATE emit. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r : encircled by 
a ring of dots. 



" Struck at the seaport 
Kalikut :" encircled by 
a ring of dots. 



QUARTER PAISAH. 



Elephant r : surrounded 



by an 
border. 



ornamental 



Struck at Khdlakhd- 
bad :" surrounded by an 
ornamental border. 



SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant r: surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 



" Struck at Feiz hisdr :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

[PI. VIII, 3.] 



HALF PAISAH. 



Elephant r : encircled by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



Elephant 1 : encircled by 
a ring of dots. 



Same as 65. 

[PI. VIII, 4.] 

Same as 65. 



QUARTER PAISAH. 



Elephant r : surrounded 
by lined circle. 



Same as 65. 

[PI. VIII, 5.] 



44 TIPPOO SUI.TAN : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER: MUHAMMADAN USURPATION continued. 



No. Mint : 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Hole Tlonnur, 

1217. 



Seringapatam, 



Bednur, 1201. 



Dharwar, 1217. 



COINS NOT IX Ml'SEVM COLLECTION.' 
SINGLE PAISAH. 



Elephant 1 : date 1217 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of dots. 

Elephant r : date 1222, 
<^<sy (Jf/1/Hf// i above : 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

[Pi. vin, 7.] 

Elephant r : date 1201 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles. 



Elephant 1 : date 1217 
above : surrounded by 
lined circles and ring 
of uots. 



"Struck at 
surrounded by lined 
circles and ring of dots. 

[PI. VIII, 6.] 

gA wy, 5^3 

" Zahra. Struck at Put- 
tun:" surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 

Marsden [PI. XLVI, Fig. MXLL] 



" Struck at Nuggur :" 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

[PI. VIII, 8.] 

> V ***>))* ^r 6 
"Struck at KharahM- 



:" surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 

[PI. VIII,!'.] 



1 Copper coins struck at Sflnm-abdd or Sati-mangalam in 
1217, and at Zafnr!>d<l or Giirnincondah in 1218, are men- 
tioned by Marsden (op. cit. p. 722). 

2 On PL II, Xo. 6, we find another of his (Tippu's) new 
names, which we learned on the spot, was given to Hooly 
Honore ; but why Tippu should call Hooly Honore_Ji ^>. 
" ' Incomparable ' is, tons, incomprehensible." Moor, op. cit. 
app., p. 476; PI. II, Fig. 6. 



COPPEE : KRISHNA EAJA WODEYAR. 







COINS WITHOUT DATE. 






FIVE CASH. 


1 


Mysore. 


Elephant 1 : sun and 
moon above: surrounded 
by lined circle and ring 
of dots. 


'Sri Krishna Raja " 
(Nag.) : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 








[PI. IX, 3.] 


2 


Mysore. 


Sri. (Kan.) 


Y Cash " i! 
"Mayiftkds5" (Kan.) 








[PI. IX, 4.] 



KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR continued. 



' 45 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Re verse. 






ELEPHANT CASH. 






TWENTY CASH. 


3 


Mysore. 


Elephant 1: ri (Kan.), 
sun and moon above : 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 


" Hay Hi Msu SO " 
(Kan.), "XX cash" 
(Eng.) : encircled by a 
ring of dots. 

[PI. IX, 5.] 


4 


Mysore. 


Same as 3. 


Same as 3. 






TEN CASH. 


5 


Mysore. 


Elephant 1 : Sri (Kan.), 
sun and moon above : 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 


" Chd 1 HayiliMsulO " 
(fan.)," X cash" (Eag.}: 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 






[PI. IX, 6.] 








FIVE CASH. 


6 


Mysore. 


Elephant 1 : ri (Kan.), 
sun and moon above : 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 


" Chd May Hi Msu 5 " 
(Kan.), "V cash" 
(Eng.) : surrounded by 
lined circle. 






[PI. IX, 7.] 








TWENTY CASH. 


7 


Mysore. 


Elephant 1 : Sri CM- 
mundi 2 (Kan.), and sun 
and moon above : sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 


ft Krishna Hayili Msu 
ippattu " 3 (Kan.), 
"XX cash" (EngO: 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 


8 


Mysore. 


Same as 7. 


Same as 7. 

[PI. IX, 8.] 






FIVE CASH. 


9 


Mysore. 


Elephant 1: Sri Cha- 
in und-i (Kan.), and sun 
and moon above : sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 


' ' Krishna Hayili Msu 5 " * 
(Kan!), "V cash" 
(Eng.) : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 

[PI. IX, 9.] 


10 


Mysore. 


Same as 9. 


Same as 9. 


1 Abreviation for Chmundi. 






2 D 3000 a = Chlmundi. 






3 oGosS&j = ippattu = twenty. 

* * S 3JO&,C 'ffDSSj x 
v -? 



46 ' KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER: KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR continued. 



Mint : 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Mysore. 
Mysore. 

Mysore. 
Mysore. 

Mysore. 



Mysore. 



Bangalore, 1833. 



Bangalore, 1833. 



LION CASH. 

(a} COINS WITHOUT DATE. 

TEN CASH. 



Lion of Clidmundi 1 : Sri 
(Kan.), sun and moon 
above : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



Same as 1 1 . 



' ' Krishna? ' ( Kan . )< ' 
s->/i> " .- 1 surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 



dots. 



Same as 1 1 . 

I Pi. IX.io.j 



FIVE CASH. 



Same. 
Same. 



Same as 11. 



Same as 11. 

[PI. IX, 11.] 

TWENTY-FIVE CASH. 



Lion of Chdmundi 1 : ri 
Ckdmundi (Kan.), and 
sun and moon above : 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 



Same as 15. 

(>) COINS WITH DATE. 
FIVE CASH. 



Inscription in a circle 
" May Hi kdsu 25 " 
(Kan.) " jj-^v-v/* " 
"XXV cash" (Eng.) : 
within the circle 
"Krishna" (Kan.) : sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 

[Pi. X, i.] 

Same as 15. 



Lion of Chdmundi 1 : Sri 
(Kan.), sun and moon 



above : date 



1833 



below : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 

Same as No. 17. 



' ' Krishna 1 ' ( Kan . ) 
s-y> " : surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



" Krishna, 2 " (Kan.), 
' ;j~ t Hf*v>7*," numerals : 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

[PI. X, 2.] 



1 " Struck at Mahisur. 



KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR continued. 



47 



No. Mint : 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Bangalore, 1834. 



B angalor e , 1834. 
Bangalore, 1834. 



Bangalore, 1835. 



Bangalore, 1835. 



Bangalore, 1835. 
Bangalore, 1836. 



Bangalore, 1836. 
Bangalore, 1836. 



LION CASH cont. 
COINS WITH DATE cont. 
TWENTY CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Sri Chamundi (Kan.), 
sun and moon above : 
date 1834 below: sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



Same as 19. 
Same. 



Same. 



Inscription in a circle 
" May Hi Msu 20 " 1 
(Kan.) Milay XX 
cash " (Eng.) : within 
the circle " Krishna " 
(Kan.). "jr-enr^jA " : 
surrounded by lined 
circle and ring of dots. 

[Pi. x, 3.1 
Same as 19. 

Same, except tho word 
Meilee instead of 
Milay. 



Same as 21. 



TEN CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Sri (Kan.), sun and 
moon above : encircled 
by a ring of dots. 



" Krishna" (K.&n). 
V numeral 10. 



[PL X, 4.] 



FIVE CASH. 



Same as 23. 



Krishna" 

s-7," numeral 5. 

TWENTY CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Sri Chamundi (Kan.), 
sun and moon above, 
date 1836 below : en- 
circled by a ring of 
dots. 

[PI. X, 6.] 



Inscription in a circle 
" Mayili Msu 20 " 
(Kan.), "Meilee XX 
cash " (Eng.) : within 
the circle "Krishna" 
(Kan.). " iy ~<v' v^ : 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 



FIVE CASH. 

Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
"Sri" (Kan.), sun and 



moon above : 
1836 below. 

Same as 26. 



date 



T^/' numeral 5 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 

Same as 26. 



48 KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR continued. 



No. Mint : 



Date. 



OlivtTsr. 



Reverse. 



28 



29 



30 



31 



32 



33 



Bangalore, 1837. 



Bangalore, 1837. 



Bangalore, 1837. 



Bangalore, 1838. 



Bangalore, 1838. 



Bangalore, 1838. 



LION CASH cow*. 
(J) COINS WITH DATE c 
TWENTY CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Brk Clidrnundi (Kan.), 
sun and moun above : 
date 1837 below: en- 
circled by a ring of 
dots. 



Same as 28. 



Inscription in a circle 



(Kan), "Meilee XX 
cash" (Eng.) : within 
the circle "Krishna '' 
(Kan.), "_^s>r*>' : 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 

Same as 28. 



FIVE CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Sri (Kan.), sun and 
moon above : date 1837 
below. 



"Krishna" (Kan.), 

"jr-^-v* s-j-*," numeral 
5 : encircled by a ring 
of dots. 



TWENTY CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 

Sri Chamundi (Kan.), 
sun and moon above : 
date 1838 below : en- 
circled by a ring of 
dots. 



Same as 31. 



Inscription in a circle 
" Mai/ Hi Mm 20" 
(Kan.), "Meillee XX 
cash." (Eng.) : within 
the circle " Krishna " 
(Kan.). '_^v**: 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 

Same as 31. 



TEX CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Sri (Kan.), sun and 
moon above : date 1838 
below : encircled by a 
ring of dots. 



"Krishna" (Kan.), 

" }f~*v* vj*> " numeral 
1 : encircled by a ring 
of dots. 



KRISHNA RJiJA WODEYAR : COPPER COINS. 

COPPEE : KRISHNA EAJA WODEYAR continued. 



49 



No. : Mint : 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Bangalore, 1839. 



Bangalore, 1839. 



Bangalore, 1839. 



Bangalore, 1839. 



Bangalore, 1840. 



Bangalore, 1841. 



Bangalore, 1841. 



Bangalore, 1841. 



LION CASH cont. 
COINS WITH DATE cont. 
TWENTY CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Sri CMmundi (Kan.), 
sun and moon above : 
date 1839 below. 



Same as 34. 



Inscription in a circle 
"Mat/Hi Msu 20" 
(Kan.), "Meilee XX 
cash " (Eng.), within 
the circle " Krishna " 
(Kan.), " ;r ~<*f vy>" : 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 



Same as 34. 



TEN CASH. 



Lion of Chdmundi 1 : 
Sri (Kan.), sun and 
moon above : date 1839 
below. 

Same as 36. 



"Krishna" (Kan.), " 
)f~!r(t", " numeral 10: 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 



Same as 36. 

[Pi. x, 7.] 



TWENTY CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Sri Chamundi (Kan.), 
sun and moon above : 
date 1840 below. 



Same as 38, but date 
1841. 



Inscription in a circle 
" May Hi Msu 20 " 
(Kan.), "Meilee XX 
cash " (Eng.), within 
the circle " Krishna " 
(Kan.), " jr ~r- v>" : 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 



TEN CASH. 



Lion of Chdmundi 1 : 
Sri (Kan.), sun and 
moon above : date 1841 
below : encircled by a 
ring of dots. 

Same as 40. 



"Krishna" (Kan.), 

" iF^&t*^)*, " numeral 
10 : encircled by a ring 
of dots. 



Same as 40. 
7 



50 KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR : COPPER COINS. 

COPPER : KRISHNA RAJA WODEYAR continued. 



No. 



Mint : Date. 



Reverse. 



LION CASH cont. 

(V) COINS WITH DATE cont. 
FIVE CASH. 



42 



43 



44 



Bangalore, 1841. 



Bangalore, 1841. 



Bangalore, 1842. 



Same. 



Same. 



Same. 



"Krishna" (Kan.), "^ 
jj~~s-v*-" numeral 5 : 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 



Same. 



TEN CASH. 



Krishna" (Kau.), 
jj *v," numeral 10 : 
encircled by a ring of 
dots. 



FIVE CASH. 



45 



46 



Bangalore, 1842. 



Bangalore, 1843. 



Same. 



"Krishna" (Kan.), " 
," numeral 5. 



TWENTY CASH. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Sri Chamundi (Kan.), 
sun and moon above : 
date 1843 below. 



Inscription in a circle 
" May Hi Msu 
(Kan.), "Meillee XX 
cash " (Eng.), witliin 
the circle " Krishna " 
(Kan.), 



TEN CASH. 



47 



Bangalore, 1843. 



Lion of Chamundi 1 : 
Sri (Kan.), sun and 
moon above : date 
1843 below. 



" Krishna," 



10. 



(Kan.). 
numeral 



( 51 ) 
ADDENDA. 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



9.1 



11.1 



26.1 



1.1 



1198 



1215 



1198 



p. 21. 



Sui/rlNi PAGODA. TIPPOO. 



Haidar's initial and letter 
alif, on a granulated sur- 
face, surrounded by lined 
circles arid ring of dots. 

p. 21. 

* C c^e 

Haidar's initial joined to 
the word Putt an, and 
numeral " (5) on a granu- 
lated surface, surrounded 
by lined circles and ring 
of dots. 



"He is the just Sultan. 
Year hejirah 1198:" sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 



\r\ ,j 

' Muhammad. He is the 
just Sultan. Year 1215 :" 
surrounded by lined cir- 
cle and ring of dots. 



p. 23. 

Illegible. 

p. 25. 



DIIOTIE FANAM. TIPPOO. 



NOKARA. TIPPOO. 



" Furrokh." 



" The religion of Muham- 
mad is made illustrious in 
the world by thu victory 
of Haidar. H. Struck at 
Puttun in the year of 
the cycle Ami', hejirah 
1198:" 1 surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



Jj\ JL. 

He is the only just Sultan. 
Third day of the month) 
Balidr'i ;^ year of the 
cycle Azal ', year of the 
reign 2 : " surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 

[Pi. XI, 1.3 



1 "This," Marsden says (Numismat, Orient., 1825, PI. II, p. 709), 
" is the earliest date that occurs of any coin struck by this Sultan, and 
as neithrr Major Moor's nor the Gott'ingen collection contains one of 
1197, it is probable that he did not coin money during the first year 
of his rcii^n. He was then still engaged in war, and not having 
arranged his systematic plan for the mint, might, as was done by his 
father, issue for a time the Kanter'raya arid Virumya or swami pagodas 
of Mysore and Kurga. 

As the year 1198 of the hej'rah, in which this double rupih was 
struck, began in November 1783 and ended in November 1784, it 
answers to the second year of the reign, whether we reckon from the 
death of Heider AH in December 1782, or, with more correctness, 
from the epoch of Tipffs accession in the following year. But besides 
two dates there is supcradded the year of the cycle of sixty, 
which it thus appears he adopted from the Hindus, some time before 
the introduction of his new era. This year is named Jj\ azal ' eter- 
nity, ' and upon reference to the abjed table (the abtas not being yet 
in use) we shall find that \ , jJ, and J, 30, express, when added 
together, 38, the proper number of the current year, which com- 
menced on the 22nd March 1784. 



52 



ADDENDA. 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



60.1 



10.1 



10.2 



16.1 



1227 



p. 42. 



SINGLE PAISAH. Tippoo. 1 



Elephant r : letter *> (se) 
above: surrounded by 
lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



" Zahra. Struck at X>"/(/i<r. 
Year l-_>-_>7, miMt:" B 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 

[Pi. xi, >.] 



p. 45. 



COINS OF KEISHNA EAJA. 

ELEPHANT. TWENTY-FIVE CASH. 



Elephant 1 : " Sri Chdniun- 
di " (Kan.), and sun and 
moon above : surrounded 
by lined circles. 



Inscription in a circle 



p. 45. 



f/i'/i hi*>i -2'; " .Kan.) 

- 

within tlie circle " h , 
na" (Kan.): surrounded 
by a lined circle. 

[Pi. XI, 3.] 



ELEPHANT. TWENTY-FIVE CASH. 



Caparisoned elephant 1 : 
' Sri Chdmundi " (K?ui.\ 
sun and moon and symbol 
of rose above : surround- 
ed by lined circles and 
ring of dots. 



Inscription in a circle 
" Mii/ifi M*u XXV" 
(Kan.), XXVcaah(En#.): 
within the circle " Krish- 
na" (Kan.): surrounded 
by lined circles and ring 
of dots. 

[Pi. XI, 4.] 



p. 46. 



LION. TWENTY-FIVE CASH. 



Lion of Chdmundi 1 : " Sri 
Chdmundi" (Nag.), sun 
and moon above, ;j~*-<f 
s-*^ below : surrounded 
by lined circle and ring of 
dots. 



Inscription in a circle 
" Mai/ Hi l-asu XXV" 
(Kan.), XXV rAFTI 
(Eng. 1 ): within the circle 
" Krifilma " (Kan.) : sur- 
rounded by lined circle 
and ring of dots. 

[PI. XI, 5.] 



1 Concerning this coin Marsden says, (Op. cit., vol. II, p. 724) 
"a peisah or zaJira of 1227, from the mint of Xaf/ar or Bednoro, lias 
in like manner a (^ the fourth and last letter of the word ^^^,\ irivrn. 
by the Sultan as a name to his numerical system on which he a 
to have wasted no small share of ingenuity. 

This is probably the last specimen of his coinage that has been 

preserved, and must have been struck within a month of his death ; 

i r 1227 of his-era having begun on the 6th April 1799, and the 

storming of Seringapatam, on which occasion he fell, having happened 

on the 4th May of that year, being the anniversary of his accession." 



SUPPLEMENT. 

NOTE BY MARSDEN ON THE ABJED AND ABTAS. " Numismata Orientalia," 
1825, Ft. H. pp. 701-7. 

" Many eastern nations, as well as the Greeks and Romans, have been 
in the practice of expressing numbers, and dates in particular, by means 
of the letters of the alphabet, to each of which a certain value is assigned. 
These may be either employed simply like other ciphers, or, being dis- 
tributed among the words of a sentence, may constitute what is termed a 
chronogram. It must at the same time be noticed, that in forming their 
system the Arabians did not adhere to the direct order of the letters in 
their own alphabet (such at least as it now exists), but followed that of the 
Hebrews, from which they acquired much of their learning, calling \ 1, s-> 2, 
S 3, J 4, &c., and from thence names the scheme ^?\ abjd, or, as pronounced 
abjed. With this antiquated system of notation the Sultan was dissatisfied, 
and he determined upon making it conform to the modern Arabic alphabet. 
Accordingly, in his scheme, \ is 1, s-> 2, ^> 3, < 4, &c., and instead of .x^ 
abjd it is consistently named cux>\ abts or abtas. In the following table, the 
numerical powers of the letters of both alphabets are expressed, and their 
application to the coinage will be hereafter shown : 

The *^ abjed or usual mode of alphabetical numeration. 
U" <-* (j* <y r* J ^ ^kcj^s^s^^ 

V A* v* "V 



p- r- 


r 


V 


<\ A 


v n K r 


v 


\ 


40 30 


20 


10 


9 8 


76543 


2 


1 


t *> 


u* 


3 


e 


4, ^ J* 


j 


j 


i V 


A" 


V 


V 


r- r- 


v 


\" 



1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 
The e~i>\ abtas or Sultani mode. 



v A- v v * f r r \* ^ A v i f r v \ 

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 

<*s * ) orJ^vS*-*^ 
\- v A- v v ? f r- v \- 

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 

It is proper to observe that although the late Government of Mysore 
was Mahometan, the population of the country is Hindu, and that amongst 
this ancient agricultiiral race, a solar or luni-solar computation of time 
had prevailed from the earliest ages. They had also established, for civil 
purposes, a cycle of sixty years, each distinguished by a particular name, 
and commencing about the vernal equinox. Their current cycle began in 
the year 1807. 

T-ipu being sensible of much practical utility in this system, or desirous 
of showing indulgence to the customs of his Hindu subjects, resolved upon 
adopting it into his calendar, and at the period of reforming the lunar year 
nn [ i-ra of the hejrnh, began to reckon also by this luni-solar cycle. Instead, 
ho\\ ( ver, of retaining the original names of the respective years, he formed 
from the letters of his abtas above described, a new set of numerical terms, 
composed of such letters as would denote the progressive numbers from one 
to sixty. But as these letters, if taken either indiscriminately or in strict 



54 SUPPLEMENT. 

succession, might not form significant or even pronounceable words, which 
common use required, a latitude was admitted in the selection and arrange- 
ment of letters equally capable of forming by their combination the same 
number: for as the sum results from simple addition, and does not depend 
upon the place ' v of units, ten-, ^c. . it Eoflowsthat they may be combined in 
any order ; and that order was chosen which produced any known terms, 
however trilling or inapplicable their meanings. 

To explain this by an example, we shall take the year 42 of the cycle, 
corresponding with 1788 of J.C., 1202 of the Jujralt, 1216 of the Sultau'- 
era, and the sixth of his reign. The number 42 may be expressed by vari- 
'Mibinations of the letters of the >//>f/tx, but if we produce it by adding 
together ^ 30, \ I, j 10, and again \ 1, we shall at the same time compo- 
word \)*~ sara ; odoriferous;' which is the name appropriated to the forty- 
second year of the cycle, and such we lind it on' the coins. Thus (for 
illustration) if it were required to express in the Roman method of nume- 
ration the date of 6.3, it might be done by combining the letters L 50, V5, 
and X 10, which together would form the word LVX, light. 

Names of the Sultani years of the cycle of sixty according to the 
abjed. 
vr \Y \\ v ( A v n a p r Y \ 



Y1 Y YP Yr YY Y\ V \l \A \v \n 



Afi>\^ ^5=* fc\j^ Jcfcj 

n *r rp rr a r\ r YI 



6f 6f a\ d- Y*l PA PV f-\ ipa Y*P Pr PY 

> " ! ~*f>^ cr'J O^J r C^*" (***" 



Names of the Sultani years of the cycle of sixty according to the 
altas. 

\p \r \Y \\ v i A v n p r Y \ 



n ? 6 V p Vr VV ft V . 



tf$ *)* 
pr PY p\ p- ri rA rv n r pr rr n r\ r- 



PP 



It must be observed that the terms ^ ahad and J^**.\ aJnned are 
arbitrarily assigned to the first and second years, because no letters besides 
\ or s^ coidd, according to the principle of the system, be assigned to 
them, and these, separately, do not constitute words, although jointly as 
v>^ ab 'water,' they apply well to the third year. It is thought super- 
fluous to annex translations of the sixty names, as the knowledge 1 of their 
signification, even if free from ambiguity, would add nothing to our know- 
ledge of the subject. 

To the twelve months also, of which these years consist, new and fanci- 
ful names were assigned, and as they frequently appear in the legends, 



SUPPLEMENT. 55 

it becomes necessary to specify them. The former of the two lists here 
given was that which Tipu employed during the first four years of his 
reign. The second contains those names which, upon changing the dbjed for 
the abtas, he found it requisite to adapt to the new system of numeration ; 
for as the initial letters of each month denote the numerical order in 
which they stand, the former set of names could not be retained without 
confusion. 

Names of -the twelve months, commencing with numerical letters, according to 
the abjed. 

n a f r Y \ 



\\ 



Names of the twelve months, commencing with numerical letters, according to 
the abtas. 



In the names of the eleventh and twelfth months, it will be noticed that 
in the old series the letter \ denoting 1, and the letter s- denoting 2, are 
followed (according to the usual order of Arabic from right to left) by the 
letter <^ denoting 10 ; but that in the new, the decimal precedes the units 
\ and v. To explain the principle of this inversion it must be considered 
that the Arabians, who in all their early inscriptions expressed numbers in 
words, at length, borrowed in later times the arithmetical notation of the 
Indians, by whom the figures are placed (as with us, who borrowed them 
at second hand from the Arabians) in the order of from left to right ; and, 
consequently, that the arrangement of numeral figures in Arabic and Persian 
manuscripts is at variance with the mode of writing. To the Sultan this 
incongruity was offensive, and he determined upon correcting it throughout 
his dominions, by causing the numerals in all public documents, and especi- 
ally on his coinage, to proceed, in conformity with the words, from right to 
left. There are occasional instances, however, of the engravers forgetting 
his master's commands and relapsing into the ancient practice." 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



Mint. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Name of Coin. 


Prince. 


No. 


Page. 


Seringapatam. 


Au. 


4 


Kanteroy Fanam. 


Kanthirava. 


1 


19 





i) 




>9 


19 


1-1 


99 





9> 


.. 


If 


II 


2 


9 


99 


ii 





II 


> 


2-1 


I 


Bednur. 


i 


. . 


Bahaduri Pagoda. 


Haidar. 


3 


1 





* 




99 


9> 


4 


1 


99 


j 


. . 


99 


99 


5 




11 


> 


.. 


Bahaduri Fanam. 


9> 


6 


1 











)9 


II 


7 


1 


Seringapatam. 





1219 


Anmedi. 


Tippoo. 


8 


20 


99 


it 





Sidaki. 


ii 


8-1 


ii 


Bednur. 





1198 


Sultani Pagoda. 


99 


9 


21 





9> 


1199 


ii 


91 


10 


9 9 


9 


j 


1200 


91 


II 


11 


)l 


Dharwar. 





1216 


99 


99 


12 


It 


Bednur. 


9> 


1216 


Fardkhi Pagoda. 


91 


13 


19 


99 


99 





9 


)) 


14 


99 


Seringapatam. 


99 


1221 


99 


99 


15 


22 


99 


ii 


1221 


99 


99 


16 


ii 


Dharwar. 





1217 


19 


99 


16-1 


99 


Seringapatam. 





1217 


Sultani Fanam (thin). 





17 


99 
99 


99 


) ) 


1219 


do. 


9 9 


18 










. . 


(thick) 


9 


19 


99 


II 


99 





do. 


)9 


20 


9 


Bednur. 


99 


1199 


Nuggur Fanam. 





21 


23 





9) 


1220 


ii 





22 


99 


Calicut. 


99 


1215 


Calicut Fanam, 


99 


23 


9 9 


M 


99 


1215 


)9 




24 


99 


New Calicut ? 


99 


1216 


Dhotie Fanam. 


99 


25 


99 


? 


99 


1217 


99 




26 


9 


Mysore. 


99 


, , 


Krishna Rdj Pagoda. 


Krishna Raja. 


27 


24 


,, 


99 


. , 


99 


99 


28 


99 


9 


99 





9> 





29 


99 


Seringapatam. 


Ar. 


1200 


Nokara. 


Tippoo. 


1 


25 








1216 


)9 





2 


M 


i 


I 


1217 


,, 




3 


9 j 






1216 


Imamf. 




4 


26 




If 




Abidi. 




5 


M 


i 


J) 


1216 


,, 





6 


9 ) 





) 


1217 


Bakhri. 





7 









1218 


,, 


99 


8 


27 




)J 


1221 


Jazri. 


9 9 


9 


ft 






1221 


Kazm> . 




10 




Myaon. 


M 





Raja Rupees. 


Krishna Raja. 


11 


>! 



58 



INDEX OF MLN !> 



Mint. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Name of Coin. 


Prince. 


No. 


Page. 


Mysore. 


Ar. 


.. 


Kaja Rupee. 


Krishna Rdja. 


12 


28 


11 


11 




11 Z J) 


it 


13 


s 





11 




11 11 


11 


13-1 


i i 








i 




14 




11 


11 





11 * 11 


11 




11 


11 
11 


i 


;; 


Chamundi 


11 
11 


U-l 

15 


11 
11 


1) 


i 


. . 


,, 




16 






i 




Adda i Fanam. 


11 


17 


11 


) I 




. . 


i> it 




17-1 




If 


, 




Haga 1 


11 


18 


11 


)) 


i 





11 


11 


18-1 


11 


.... 


Ae. 





Tiger Cash. 


Tippoo. 


1 


33 


Seringapatam. 


11 


, . 


Single Paisah. 


11 


2 


11 





11 





)i 


11 


3 


11 


Calicut. 


11 


1199 


11 


11 


4 


11 


Bednur. 


11 


1199 


11 


11 


5 


11 


Calicut. 


it 


1200 


11 


11 


6 


11 


Seringapatam. 


11 


1200 


Half Paisah. 


11 


7 


it 


1 1 


11 


121,5 


Single ,, 


1 1 


8 




11 


11 


1215 


Quarter ,, 


i> 


9 


34 


Gooty. 


11 


1215 


Half 


i> 


10 


ii 


Chittledroog. 


11 


1216 


Single 


11 


11 


ii 


Nitzarb&r. 


11 


1216 


Half 


11 


12 


it 


Bangalore. 


11 


1216 


11 11 


11 


13 


11 


Seringapatam. 


11 


1216 


11 11 


11 


14 


11 


New Calicut. 


11 


1217 


Single 


11 


15 


11 


11 


11 


1217 


11 11 


1 1 


16 


11 


11 


11 


1217 


11 11 


i j 


17 


i j 


a 


11 


1217 


Half 


11 


18 


35 


Chittledroog. 


11 


1217 


11 11 


11 


19 


a 


Bednur. 


11 


1217 


11 11 


11 


20 


a 


Islamab&d. 


11 


1217 


Single ,, 


11 


21 


11 


Calicut. 


11 


1217 


11 11 


11 


22 


11 


Bangalore. 


11 


1218 


Quarter ,, 


11 


23 


11 


11 


11 


1218 


Eighth 




24 


11 


Chittledroog. 


11 


1218 


Half 


11 


25 


36 


11 


11 


1218 


11 11 


11 


26 


11 


New Calicut ? 


11 


.. 


Single 


11 


27 


,, 


Islamabad. 


11 


1218 


Eighth 


11 


28 


11 


Gooty. 


11 


1218 


Half 


11 


29 


11 


Seringapatam. 


11 


1219 


Double ,, 


11 


30 


11 


Chittledroog. 


11 


1219 


11 11 


11 


31 


37 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



59 



Mint. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Name of Coin. 


Prince. 


Xo. 


Page.. 


Seringapatam. 


Ae. 


1219 


Single Paisah. 


Tippoo. 


32 


37 


Bangalore. 


it 


1219 


Half 


M 


33 


ii 


Seringapatam. 


M 


1221 


Single ,, 


(> 


34 




,, 


ii 


1221 


Half ,, 


, 


35 




I 9 


ii 


1221 


Quarter ,, 





36 




I 1 




1222 


Double ,, 




37 


38 


II 


,, 


1222 


Single ,, 




38 




II 


" 


1222 


Half 


1 


39 


ii 


Bednur. 


ii 


1222 


Single ,, 




40 


> 


>' 





1222 


i 


II 


41 




.... 


II 


1222 


Quarter ,, 


,, 


42 


39 


Beringapatam 


II 


1223 


Single 




43 




,, 


,, 


1223 


Halt- 




44 




,, 


,, 


1223 


Quarter ,, 




45 










1223 


Single ,, 




46 




,, 


() 


1224 


Double ,, 




47 


40 


ii 


,, 


1224 


Single , , 




48 




ii 


n 


1224 


M 1 




49 




11 


,, 


1224 


Half 




50 


9 ) 


it 


,, 


122.5 


Double , 




51 




,, 


,, 


1225 


i 




52 


4*1 


,, 


() 


122.3 


Single , 




53 




it 


M 


1225 


Half 




54 




it 


11 


1225 


Quarter , 


, 


55 


1 1 


Bednur. 


II 


1225 


Single , 




56 




ii 


II 


1226 


,, 




57 




ii 




1226 


Half , 


',', 


58 


42 


Seringapatam 


19 


1226 


Single ,, 




59 




,, 


) f 


1226 


Quarter , , 




60 




,, 




1260 


Single ,, 




61 


1 1 


" 


M 





Double ,, 


',', 


62 





Calicut. 


M 





Single ,, 


II 


63 


43 


Chandagal. 


I) 





Quarter ,, 


II 


64 


M 


Gooty. 


lf 


, , 


Single 




65 




" 








Half 


91 


66 


91 


',', 


II 


:: 


Quarter ,, 


II 


67 
68 




Hole Honnur. 





1217 


Single ,, 


II 


1 


44 


Seringapatam. 


1. 


1222 





II 


2 




Bednur. 


II 


1201 


ii 





3 


ii 


Dharvrar. 


,1 


1217 


M 


II 


4 


u 


Mysore. 


. 




Five Cash. 


Krishna Raja. 


1 


ii 


Mysore. 






Elephant xx Cash. 


ii 


2 
3 


45 








i) 


,, 


4 










> ^ 


ii 


5 










> v 


.. 


6 











XX 


n 


7 


91 









) !) 


,, 


8 








* * 


, v 


ii 


9 


II 



60 



INDEX OF MINTS. 



Mint. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Name of Coin. 


Prince. 


No. 


Page. 


Mysore. 


Ae. 




Elephant Cash. 


Krishna Raja. 


10 


45 


11 


u 


. . 


Lion x ,, 




11 


46 




, t 


. . 


ii x ii 


,, 


12 


n 


t) 


|f 




v 


,, 


13 




M 


ii 


. . 


,, v ,, 


,, 


14 


11 


ii 


,, 


.. 


7, XX ^' 1 


,, 


15 




ii 


" 





,, XXV , 


" 


16 


ii 


Bangalore. 


ii 


1833 


V 


,, 


17 


n 


1 1 


,, 


1833 


II v 


,, 


18 


ii 


1 1 


i 


1834 


,1 xx 


,, 


19 


47 




, 


1834 


xx 


i, 


20 


n 




, 


1834 


II xx 


,i 


21 


n 




i 


1835 


,1 xx 


,, 


22 


,, 




i 


1835 


11 x 


,, 


23 


,, 




, 


1835 


11 ^ 


,, 


24 


,, 




i 


1836 


,1 xx 


11 


25 


,, 






1836 


II v 


,, 


26 


,, 




i 


1836 


11 v 


,, 


27 


,, 






1837 


II xx 


11 


28 


48 




i 


1837 


11 xx 


ii 


29 


,, 






1837 


II v 


,, 


30 


n 




, 


1838 


71 XX 


,, 


31 


n 




, 


1838 


11 xx 


n 


32 


,, 




( 


1838 


II x 


ii 


33 


11 






1839 


,1 xx 


,, 


34 


49 




i 


1839 


11 xx 


11 


35 


n 




i 


1839 


11 x 


ii 


36 


,, 




i 


1839 


11 x 


71 


37 


n 






1840 


,1 xx 


II 


38 


n 






1841 


,1 xx 


II 


39 


11 




. 


1841 




11 


40 


11 






1841 


11 x 


,, 


41 


11 


11 




1841 


v 


II 


42 


50 


1 1 


i 


1841 


11 v 


11 


43 


,, 






1842 


11 x 


II 


44 


,, 


1 1 




1842 


y 


II 


45 


>f 


11 


} i 


1843 


11 xx 


II 


46 


,, 


ii 




1843 


,1 x 


II 


47 


" 



INDEX OF PLATES. 



PLATE I. 



Name of Coin. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Kanteroy Fanam. 


Au. 
ii 





Kan^hirava. 


19 


I 


1 
2 


Bahaduri Pagoda. 


M 
M 





Haidar. 

M 


l 





3 
4 
5 


Farukhi Pagoda. 


M 


1217 


Tippoo. 


22 





6 


Bahaduri Fanam. 


|, 




Haidar. 


19 





7 


Ahmedi Mohur. 


M 


1219 


Tippoo. 


20 


, 


8 


Sultani Pagoda. 





1198 
1200 
1216 





21 

7> 





9 
10 
11 


FartSkhi Pagoda. 


It 


1216 
1221 


;; 


22 


ii 


12 
13 


Sultani Fanam. 





1217 
1199 


fl 


23 





14 
15 


Calicut Fanam. 


;; 


1215 
1215 


;; 


;; 


;; 


16 

17 


Dhotie Fanam. 


,, 


1216 





> 


,, 


18 


Krishna Raja Pagoda. 





1216 


Krishna Raja. 


24 


M 


19 


Half Ptoman. 1 





1271 


.... 





" 


20 



This gold coin is said to have been formerly current in Mysore. 



PLATE II. 



Name of Coin. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Nokara double rupee. 


AT. 


1200 
1216 
1217 


Tippoo. 

M 


25 


II 


1 
2 
3 


Imami single rupee. 





1216 


,, 


26 





4 


Abidi half rupee. 







" 





ii 


5 



62 



INDEX OF PLATES. 
PLATE III. 



K"ame of Coin. 


-Metal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Aljidi half rupee. 


Ar. 


.. 


Tippoo. 


26 


III. 


1 


Biikhri quarter rupee. 


;; 


1217 
1218 


j| 


27 


;; 


2 
3 


Jazri two annas. 


u 


1221 





ii 


,, 


4 


Kazini one anna. 


,, 


M 


H 


,, 





5 


Eja rupee. 








Krishna Raja. 
ii 


28 


M 



6 

7 


Kaja half rupee. 





.. 


,, 


,, 


,, 


8 


Kaja quarter rupee. 


I, 








,, 


M 


9 


Chamundi quarter rupee. 


, 





;; 


;; 


M 


10 
11 


Adda half fanam. 





.. 


u 


ii 


II 


12 


Haga quarter fanam. 


II 





" 





II 


13 



PLATE IV. 



Name of Coin. 


iletal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Chequered Beverse. 


Ae. 






29 


IV 


1 






, , 


.... 


M 




2 








.... 


M 




3 






, . 


.... 






4 








.... 


30 




5 






, , 




29 




6 









.... 


u 




7 






" 


.... 


" 




9 






1 1 


.... 


30 




10 








.... 


29 




11 








.... 


ii 




12 






, , 


.... 


30 




13 






. . 


.... 


ii 




14 






. 




M 




15 








. 


31 




16 








.... 


30 




17 










32 




18 








.... 






19 








.... 






20 














21 









i . . 


" 


' 


22 



INDEX OF PLATES. 



63 



PLATE V. 



Name of Coin. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Single Paisah 


Ae. 


.. 


Tippoo 


33 


V 


1 


Half ,, 


,, 


1216 


ii 


34 
ii 


ii 
ii 


2 
3 


Quarter ,, 


i, 


1218 


,i 


35 





4 


Single ,, 


,i 


1217 


n 


34 


M 


5 


Half 


" 


ii 


I 


35 
n 
ii 


ii 


6 

7 
8 


Single , , 


n 


>, 





ii 


n 


9 


Eighth 


1, 


1218 


II 


36 


,i 


10 


Single ,, 





1219 


II 


37 


" 


11 



PLATE VI. 



Name of Coin. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Double Paisah 


Ae. 


1219 


Tippoo 


36 


VI 


1 


Quarter 





1221 


i> 


37 





2 


Double ,, 


M 


1222 


> 


38 


> 


3 


Single ,, 


II 


M 


M 





ii 


4 


Half 


M 


)> 











5 


Quarter ,, 





II 


II 


39 


M 


6 


Single ,, 





1223 


II 


n 





7 


Half 


)l 


ii 





M 


)) 


8 



64 



INDEX OF PLATES. 



PLATE VII. 



Name of Coin. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Pkte. 


Fig. 


Single Paisah 


Ae. 


1223 


Tippoo 


39 


VII 


1 


Double ,, 


ii 


1224 


! 


40 


M 


2 


Single 








)l 


ii 


II 


3 


Half 


> 


ii 


II 


11 


M 


4 


Double 


> 


1225 


II 


ii 


> 


5 


Single ,, 





ii 





41 


) 


6 


Half 


ii 


ii 


II 


M 


I) 


7 


Quarter ,, 


ii 


> 


II 





II 


8 



PLATE VIII. 



Name of Coin. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Single Paisah 


Ae. 


1199 


Tippoo. 


33 


VIII 


1 


!l 


n 


1215 


ii 


35 


)> 


2 


M 


M 








43 





3 


Half 


11 





ii 


ii 





4 


Quarter ,, 


) 


.. 





i 





5 


Single ,, 





1217 


ii 


44 


>i 


6 


1) M 


II 


1222 





> 





7 


II II 


|| 


1201 


M 


M 


>i 


8 


) 


)) 


1217 


,, 


)) 





9 





M 


1222 





38 





10 



INDEX OF PLATES. 



65 



PLATE IX. 



Name of Coin. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Single Paisah. 


Ae. 


1226 
1260 


Tippoo. 


41 
42 


IX 


1 
2 


Five Cash. 


" 





Krishna Raja. 


44 


" 


3 
4 


Twenty ,, 


,, 







45 




5 


Ten 


,i 


.. 





,, 


ii 


6 


Five 


it 





ii 


i, 


ii 


7 


Twenty 


i, 


.. 


ii 


,, 


,, 


8 


Five ,, 


ii 


.. 





ii 


ii 


9 


Ten 


ii 


.. 


i, 


46 


ii 


10 


Five 


ii 








ii 


ii 


11 



PLATE X. 



Name of Coin. 


Metal 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Twenty-five Cash 


Ae. 


.. 


Krishna Raja. 


46 


X 


1 


Five ,, 


,i 


1833 


ii 


,, 


n 


2 


Twenty ,, 


ii 


1834 


ii 


47 


ii 


3 


Ten 





1835 


,, 


ii 


,- 


4 


Twenty ,, 


ii 


1836 


., 


ii 


>i 


5 


Ten 
Do. 


>f 


1838 
1839 


ii 


48 
49 





6 

7 


Tiger 


ii 





Tippoo 


33 


" 


8 


Half Paisah 


ii 


1226 


n 


42 


ii 


9 


Double ,, 


i, 





>, 


ii 


n 


10 


Mark on Tippoo' s cannon, 
&c 








.... 


14 


ii 


11 



66 



INDEX OF PLATES, 



PLATE XI. 



Name of Coin. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Prince. 


Page. 


Plate. 


Fig. 


Nokara. 


Ar. 


1198 


Tippoo. 


51 


XI 


1 


Single Paisah. 


Ae. 


1227 


n 


52 


ii 


2 


Twenty-five Cash. 


ii 





Krishna Raja. 


> 


ii 


3 


i M 


M 


.. 


M 


ii 


n 


4 


II II 


II 





ii 


ii 


>i 


5 



PLATE I 






1LEX: BARRE.N: L|Tt>OC., MADRAS, I887. 



GOLD. COINS 



PL ATE 




< 





PLATE: in 









T E. )V. 







~ F. S. COIN? 



PLATE, V 




COPPE1R COIN!:, 



. . 




M-E.X;BARHE.N.L!7HOG; MADRAS. 



CO? ' 



P LATE . Vil. 







AI-LX-. BARR EN. LITHOG: MADRAS. 



PLATE V 






X-. BARRtN . LITHOG,.MA.DRA5,IBg7. 



COPPER COINS. 



PLATF 














, LHHOC : MADRAS. 



COPPER COINS 



PLATE X 













il 



COPPER COINS 



PLATE XI 








" HRtN- UTHCG: MADRAS, 1&67, 



GOVERNMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM, 
MADRAS. 



COINS 



CATALOGUE No. 



EOMAN, INDO-PORTUGUESE, AND CEYLOK 



With One Plate. 




SUPERINTENDENT, MADRAS GOVERNMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM. 



MADRAS: 
FEINTED BY THE STJPEEINTENDENT, GOVEENMENT PEESS. 



, 10 annas.] 1888. 



CONTENTS. 



Page 
I. ROMAN IMPERIAL COINS ., .,- ,. 145 

II. INDO-PORTUGUESE COINS 4761 

III. CEYLON COINS ,. 6274 



I- -ROMAN COINS. 



ROMAN COINS. 



" What ! A gold coin amid these jewelled treasures 

Why send me such a relic ? " So you say. 
" Good to enhance some antiquary's pleasures ; 

Stamped for dead people in a buried day ! " 

True now, but look a little I If one ponder 
The legend of this piece, its gold may shine 
With lustre leaving dull the gems of wonder 
Which I did lay in those dear hands of thine. 

An aureus of the Roman empire See I 

Edwin Arnold. 

I HAVE included in the present catalogue all the types of coins of the 
Roman Imperial series, which are contained in the museum collection, 
although the majority of the copper issues were doubtless not dis- 
covered in India. 

The earliest notice, so far as I am aware, of the discovery of gold 
Roman coins (aurei) in the Madras Presidency, is contained in a letter 
from Alexander Davidson, Esq., formerly Governor of Madras, dated 
July 12, 1787, 1 who writes as follows : "A peasant near Nelor, about 
100 miles north- west of Madras, was ploughing on the side of a stony 
craggy hill ; his plough was obstructed by some brickwork ; he dug and 
discovered the remains of a small Hindu temple, under which a little 
pot was found with Roman coins and medals of the second century. 
He sold them as old gold, and many no doubt were melted, but the 
Nawab Amir ul Umara recovered upwards of thirty of them. This 
happened while I was governor, and I had the choice of two out of 
the whole. I chose an Adrian and a Faustina. Some of the Trajans 
were in good preservation. Many of the coins could not have been in 
circulation ; they were all of the purest gold, and many of them as 
fresh and beautiful as if they had come from the mint but yesterday ; 
some were much defaced and perforated, and had probably been worn 
as ornaments on the arm, and others pending from the neck." 

In 1800 a pot was dug up at Palachy, containing a great many 
coins of Augustus and Tiberius, which were all of the same weight and 
value, each weighing 56 grains. Concerning these coins Buchanan 
says : 2 " One of the kinds is of Augustus. The legend round the head 

is CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, that is, CfBSCtr Augustus, 

Divi Filius, Pater Patrice. Above the reverse, representing two persons 
standing with two bucklers and spears placed between them, the 
legend is AVGVSTI F cos DESIG PRINC JVVENT, that is Augusti Fitio, 
Ooitsule designate, principe juwntiitis. Under the figures is written 
CAESARIA or Ccesaria, at some city of which name it has been struck. 
The other coin is of the same weight and belongs to Tiberius. The 
legend round the head is TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS Tiberius 

1 Asiatic Researches, 1790, vol. ii, p. 332. 

2 Journey through Mysore, Canara aad Malabar, ed. ii, 1870, vol. ii, p. 31. 



8 ROMAN rorxs. 



Did Attyitxti Fi/ius Auyuxftt*. On the reverse, representing a 
person seated and holding a spear in one hand and a branch in the 
other is the following legend : PONTIF MAXIM, or Pontifex Maximus/' 

In 1806 the following five gold coins, all of different types, were 
found at Caroor, figured by Colonel Mackenzie, and described some 
years later by Sir Walter Elliot, 3 viz., " 1. AVGVSTVS mvi F., with a 
very curious and apparently undescribed reverse like a dog or sow or 
some large quadruped with its nose to the ground and its tail over its 
back, below which in the exergue IMP. x ; 2. the common type of 
Tiberius as Pontifex Maximus; 3. of Antonia, CONSTANTLY. AVGVSTAE. 
(Akerman, D.C.I., p. 148, No. 1); 4. two of Claudius, one CONSTA.NTI.K. 
AVGVSTI (Akerman, i. p. 155, No. 2), and the other S.P.Q.R.P.P. OB. c.s. 
in an oak wreath." 

In 1810 a pot full of well-preserved coins of Augustus and Tiberius 
was dug up at Poldchi in the Coimbatore district, and seven years later 
a silver coin of Augustus was found in one of the old tombs called 
Pniulu Cu/ia, together with a number of irregular-shaped punch-marked 
"Buddhist coins." 3 ' 

Concerning finds of Roman coins in the Coimbatore district, Mr. R. 
Sewell says : 4 "It is evident that there was at one time a very con- 
siderable commerce between the inhabitants of this district and the 
Romans, for there have been numerous finds of Roman coins made here. 
Mr. Walhouse (Ind. Ant. v, 237) thinks that this was in great measure 
due to the beryl mine at Padiyur in the Dhardpurarn taluk, for the 
Romans set great store by the beryl, and Pliny declares that the best 
beryls come from India." On this subject the Rev. Henry Little writes : 5 
" He (Mr. Walhouse) says that in the Kangyam taluk (near Dhara- 
puram) of the Coimbatore district, at a village called Padiyur, there is 
an extensive dyke of crystalline porphyritic granite in the gneiss rock ; 
the d^yke abounds with masses of quartz with large crystals of the same, 
as well as felspar, cleavelundite and garnets ; the crystals of cleavelun- 
dite are remarkably fine, and it often occurs in large masses, in the 
cavities of which the aqua marina is found in six-sided prisms. Mr. 
Walhouse gives an account of the enlargement of a well in 1798 and 
the discovery of these gems ; also of a systematic search made by a Mr. 
Heath in 1819-20, resulting in the securing of 2,196 stones, which 
weighed 60 seers and were worth 1,200." He then adds " it is highly 
probable that most of the best aqua marines of the true sea-green color 
used in modern times in Europe come from this well, and some con- 
siderations will now be offered endeavouring to show the probability, ;tt 
least, that its produce reached Europe in classical times and may have 
been the object of Roman barter ..... Pliny first conjectured what 
science has proved that it is but a variety of emerald, and says especi- 
ally of it (Nat. Hist., Bk. xxxvii, cap. v). The best beryls are those 
which have the greenness of pure sea water, and come from India, sel- 
dom found elsewhere. He also remarks that they are most lustrous 
when artificially polished hexagonally, not being aware that they occur 
in six-sided crystals. Now whence came the aqua marines known to 
Pliny and on which the Grreek and Roman engravers exercised their 



3 Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 1844, vol. xiii, p. 214. 

4 Lists of the Antiquarian Remains in the Presidency of Madras, 1881, vol. i, p. - 1 
f Madras Christian College Magazine, December 1883, pp. 344-6. 



ROMAN COIXS. 

skill ? In modern times tlie gem "besides occurring in the Indian well 
has been found in America (North and South), in Siberia, and at a 
few places scattered over Europe, particularly at Limoges in France. 
America and Siberia may be excluded from the source's of ancient supply. 
The localities in Europe are in regions little known to the Romans and 
unmentioned by Pliny, who had the best means of information. It is 
unknown in Ceylon. Its ancient origin seems therefore limited, as 
Pliny says it was, to India, and there it is only known to occur at the 
locality in Coimbatore described in this note, where moreover the gem 
is distinguished by the true sea-green color specified by Pliny ; else- 
where it is bluish or muddy in tint. It must be added too that most 
of the finds of Roman coins have been within a radius of 30 miles of 
this well, and it has been stated to me that between that locality and 
the west coast there are plenty of Roman coins, both silver and gold, 
owned by cultivators who now and then dispose of one or two of them 
when they go to any distant place to a festival." 

I have been informed by Mr. Henry Sullivan, and the fact is re- 
corded by Mr. R. Sewell G that, when his father, Mr. John Sullivan, 
was digging the foundations of the house on the hill to the south of 
the lake at Ootacamund, now called Bishopsdown, about the year 1827, 
he discovered a gold Roman coin, which passed into the possession of Sir 
"Walter Elliot ; and it is noted by Mr. Sewell that in the valley behind 
Bishopsdown and Fernhill, called by the natives Punthat, are some 
ancient gold workings. 

In 1838 an aureus of Trajan in fine preservation was picked up by 
a woman gathering sticks on the side of a stony hill near the village 
of Athiral in the Chitwail taluk of the Cuddapah district. 

Obi'crw. Head of Trajan. IMP. TRAIANO. AVG. GET?. DAC. P.M. TR. p. 

R'.-ccrse. A soldier with a spear over his shoulder, marching to 
the right, cos. v. p,p. S.P.Q.R. OPTIMO. PRINC. 

A solidus of Zeno was found in company with three or four of the 
pagodas, called Animitti, from their bearing the impression of an 
elephant, and with several silver coins of the type figured by Prinsep 
as No. 9 of his Ceylon series, 7 at the foot of an insulated hill in the 
Tirumaugalum taluk of the province of Madura in May 1839. The 
type of the Roman coin, which has been pierced to be worn as an orna- 
ment, bears the armed bust of the emperor, with D.N. ZEXO. PERP. AVG. 
and the type of Victory holding a long cross. VICTORIA. AVG.G.G. 0. In 
the exergue coxoB. 8 

Still more recently in June 1840 a hoard of Roman aufei was 
discovered at the village of Darphal, about 15 miles from Sholapoor. 
They were contained in a small earthen lota, and only eighteen were 
secured, chiefly of the reign of Severus, but a few also of Antoninus, 
Commodus, Lucius Verus, and (ieta. Drawings of a few have been 
seen, and some of these prove to be rare types, such as Severus, 

ADVEXTVI. AVG. FELIC1SSIMO. 
F ELICIT AS. SAECVLI 
FORTVXAE. REDVCI. 

PROVIDENTIA. Medusa's head. 

t 6 Op. cit., vol. i, p. 226. 

7 Journ. As. Soc., Bonp., 1837, vol. vi, p. 298, pi. 20. 
- X". 1 of Akev. , ii, p. 381. 



10 KOMAN COINS. 

One of the emperors on horseback spearing a lion appears to refer 
to a type of Commodus (Akerman, No. 99), but the legend is illegible 
in the drawing . There is also a specimen of Lucius Verus with the 
type of ^Esculapius, and SALVTI. AVG. v. S.P.Q.R. TR. POT. in. cos, n. 9 

" In the month of May 1842, after a heavy fall of rain, an earthen 
pot was discovered in a piece of waste land belonging to the village 
of Vellaloor, about four miles to the east of the town of Coimbatore, 
which on examination was found to be filled with silver coins. When 
brought to the Collector, they were found to be Roman Denarii, 522 
in number, chiefly of the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, with a 
few of Caligula and Claudius. The earthen vessel in which they had 
lain was like the common terra-cotta lota of the present time. It was 
broken to pieces in the scramble of the finders to possess themselves 
of its contents. Vellaloor is not known to be remarkable as a place 
of importance either in ancient or modern times. 

" Only eleven different types were found to occur in the large num- 
ber of coins above mentioned. 

1. Obverse. Head of Augustus 134 examples. 

CAES. AVGVSTVS. DIVI. F. PATER. PATEIAE. 

Reverse. The Poiitifical instruments, and two bucklers between the 
standing figures of Caius and Lucius. 

C. L. CAESARIS. AVGVSTI. F. COS. DESIG. PRINC. JVVEXT. 

1. Head of Augustus .... 1 example. 

' AVGVSTVS. DIVI. F. 

Diana Venetrix. 
IMP. x. 

3. Head of Tiberius 378 examples, 

TI. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. F. AVGVSTVS, 

The emperor seated in a chair. 

POXTIF. MAXIM. 

4. Head of Drusus senior ... 1 example. 

2STERO. CLAVDIU8. DRVSVS. GERMANICUS. IMP. 

A triumphal arch ; on the frieze, DE. GERMANS. 

5. Head of Germanicus (son of the above) I example. 

GERMANICUS. CAES. P.C. CAES. AVG. GERM. 

Head of Caligula. 

C. CAES. AVG. GERM. P.M. TR. POT. III. COS. II. 

6. Head of Agrippina 1 example. 

AGRIPPINA. MAT. CAES. AVG. GERM. 

Head of Caligula. 

C. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P.M. TR. POT. 

7. Head of Caligula 1 example. 

C. CAES. AVG. GERM. P.M. TR. POT. 

Radiated head between two stars. 

8. Head of Claudius ... 1 example. 

TI. CLAVD. CAES. AVG. GERM. P.M. TR. P. 

Female seated. 

CONSTAXTIAE. AVGVSTI. 



9 Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 1844, vol. xiii, p. 215. 



ROMAN COINS. II 

9. Head of Claudius 1 example. 

DIVVS. CLAVDIUS. AVGVSTV8. 

A carpentuni drawn by four horses. 
In the exergue EX. s.c. 

10. Head of Claudius ... 2 examples. 

XI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. VI. IMP. XI. 

Victory pointing with a eaduceus to a serpent, 

PACl. AVGVSTAE. 

11. Head of Claudius. ... 1 example. 

CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. POT. IMP. X. 

An oak wreath, within which. S.P.Q.R. P.P. OB. c.s." m 

As regards the same find of coins Mr. M. J. Walhouse says : u " This 
discovery took place just before I joined the district. I took casts of 
some of the coins, which by order of Grovermnent were sent to Madras 
whether there melted in the mint or reserved in the museum I know- 
not. The coins were doubtless all of well-known and ' edited ' types \ 
a short description may, however, b& archseologically interesting. Of 
the 522, there were 134 bearing the head of Augustus with inscription 
CAES. AVGVSTVS. Divi. F. PATER. PATRIAE, on the reverse a trophy of 
arms between two standing figures and legend C.L. CAESARIS. AVGVSTI. F. 
cos. DESIG. PRINC. JWENT ; and 378 bore the head of Tiberius with 
inscription TI. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. F. AVGVSTVS, on the reverse the emperor 
seated, with POXTIF. MAXIM. Of the remainder, two bore the head of 
Claudius and legend TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. vi. IMP. xi, on 
the reverse a wtnged figure pointing with a wand to a snake, and 
inscription PACI. AVGVSTAE ; another bore the head of Claudius with 
DIVVS. CLAVDIVS. AVGVSTVS, on the reverse a chariot drawn by four 
horses abreast, with letters EX. s. c. There were two other types of 
Claudius, one bearing on the reverse a female seated, the other a wreath 
enclosing letters ; and two coins of Caligula bearing the emperor's head, 
on the reverse of one a head surrounded with rays. A single example 
bore a head of Augustus with AVGVSTVS. DIVI. F. and on the reverse 
Diana carrying a spear, accompanied by a deer or hound, and legend 
IMP. x. Two remaining types were indistinct, one bearing a sort of 
arch." 

In his Remarks on some IcficJ;/ discovered Roman gold coins (1851), 
Captain Drury says: l2 " A most interesting discovery of a large 
quantity of ancient Koman gold coins has lately been made in the 
neighbourhood of Cannanore on the Malabar coast, not only remarkable 
for the numbers found (amounting to some hundreds) but also for 
their wonderful state of preservation. Many appear almost as fresh as- 
on the day they were struck the outline of the figures is so sharp and 
distinct, and the inscriptions so clear and legible. With very few 
exceptions, they are all of gold, and of the age of Imperial Rome from 
Augustus downwards, several of them being coeval with the earliest 
days of the Christian era. From what we have been able to learn, 
regarding their first appearance, it seems that a few were brought into 
the town of Calicut and offered for sale in the bazaar by some poor 
natives, who, naturally supposing from their shining appearance, that 
they were worth perhaps some trifle, gladly bartered them away for a 

10 Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 1844, vol. xiii, p. 212. 

11 Indian Antiquities, 1876, vol. v, p. 239, foot-note. 

12 Journ. As. Soc., Beng., 1852, vol. xx, pp. 371-387. 



12 JIOMA.N COINS. 

day's i'eed of rice. The coins, however, speedily found their way among 
those who were not long in estimating their real value, and the natives, 
finding that some importance was attached to the glittering metal, began 
to rise in their demands, and at length sold them for one, five, ten, and 
subsequently, for fourteen rupees the coin. The purity of the gold 
especially attracted the notice of the jewellers and the wealthier natives, 
who purchased them for the purpose of having them melted down for 
trinkets and ornaments, and many, it is to be regretted,, have been 
irretrievably lost in this way. The secrecy at first so carefully main- 
tained by the natives in respect to the spot whence they brought them 
rose in proportion to the eagerness with which the coins were bought 
up, and for a long time all endeavours proved fruitless in ascertaining 
the pretjgse locality wherein they were found. It now appears that 
they were accidentally discovered in the search for gold dust by the 
gradual clearing away of the soil on the slope of a small hill in the 
neighbourhood of Kottayem, a village about ten miles to the eastward 
of Cannanore. A brass vessel was also found, in which many of the 
coins were deposited. For a length of time the nitmbers appear to have 
been very great, and it has been stated that no less than five cooly- 

loads of gold coins were dug out of the same spot It is 

impossible to make any correct calculation as to the numbers which 
have actually been found, but it might be mentioned that about eighty 
or ninety have come into the possession of His Highness the Rajah of 
Travancore, and still a greater quantity has been collected and preserved 
by General C alien, Resident in Travancore,, while even after the lapse 
of more than a year from their first discovery they are still procurable 
from the natives in the neighbourhood of Tellicherry and Calicut. The 
most numerous examples which occur are those of the reign of Tiberius, 
and next to that emperor, those of Nero. It is not a little remarkable 
that both among these aurei as well as among the denarii alluded to as 
discovered at Coimbatore, 1842, the examples of coins of the Emperor 
Tiberius should in both instances have been more frequent than any 
other, although this may in some manner be accounted for when we 
consider that the reign of Tiberius extended over a period of twenty- 
three years a long time in comparison with that of the other emperors 
except Augustus." 



Translation of a native letter, descripfirc of the locality, and frst discover >/ 

of the coins. 

Tellielicrnj, December 16, 1850. 

" Agreeably to my last note, I now beg to furnish you with the 
information of the discovery of gold coins here. About three years ago 
certain Syrians residing at Keelaloor Dashom in Palashy A msharn of 
the Cotiacum taluk were in the habit of collecting gold from the bed 
of the river Vaniencuclavoo (by taking the sand and sifting it), which 
was between Keelaloor Dashom and Vengador. One day, whilst they 
were engaged in digging the bed of the river, a number of gold coins 
was found in a part where there was a mixture of sand and mud. These 
were lying buried in the ground, but not in a vessel. A great quantity 
was taken, but nobody knows how many. Some suppose that these 
might, have been buried here in bags, which have been destroyed. ' At 



ROMAN COIN*. 13 

a distance of ten koles east of this, there is a garden belonging to 
some low caste people who always reside there. During the hot season 
there is water to a man's depth, whilst in the monsoon there is depth 
equal to four or five men. The stream runs through one side of the 
dry bed of the river, whilst the other is so filled up with sand that it is 
like an island. Below this island on the other side there is another 
current resembling a small canal, which is the place whence the coins are 
taken. Certain Maplamars of Curvoye taluk hearing of the discovery 
of gold at this canal proceeded thither and tried to collect some, and it 
is said that they also got some coins. Although what these people got 
is not so much as taken formerly by others, nobody knows what was 
the exact quantity. About the year 964 (1788 A.D.) it is supposed 
that certain Gentoo inhabitants of Coorg or Mysore were in the habit 
of trading in these parts. This being the time of war, some wealthy 
merchants might have, from competent reasons, cast their gold coins 
into the river. There is no story of a wealthy man having ever resided 
in any of the adjacent villages." 



DESCRIPTION OF THE COINS. 

Augustus born 63 B.C., died 14 A.D. ; reigned 58 years. 

1. Obrcrsf,. AVGVSTVS. mvi. F. Head of emperor. 

r'se. IMP. xni. Two figures, one seated. 

2. Obverse. Head of emperor. No inscription. 
Reverse. CAESAR. AVGVS. Triumplial quadriga. 

3. Obverse. AVGVSTVS. DIVI. F. Head of emperor. 

Reverse. AVGVS. ; rest illegible. Equestrian figure galloping. 

4. Obverse. CAESAR. AVGVSTVS. DIVI. F. PATER. PATRIAE. Head of 

emperor. 
Reverse. AVGVSTI. F. cos. DESIG. PRINC. 

JVVEXT. L. CAESARIS. Two figures of Caius and Lucius ; standing 
between them are two shields on the ground. 

The inscription on the reverse of this coin would run thus : Caius 
et Tiuchix Cfesares Auyusti Jilii, Consoles dc^ignati, principc* juccntutis. 
Caius and Lucius were the grandsons of Augustus, upon whom was 
bestowed the title ' of Principe* Juraitutix, and it was subsequently 
conferred upon the probable successor to the throne when he first entered 
upon public life. Tacitus explains this when he says : " Nam genitos 
Agrippa, Caium ac Lucium, in familiam Csesarum induxerat ; nee dum 
posita puerili praetexta, Principesjuvenitttia appelari, destinari consules," 
&c., Tac. Ann., 1, 3. See also Suet, in Aug. Cap. 64 et seqq. 
The origin of the designation " Pater Patrise " given to Augustus by 
universal consent is- thus described by Suetonius (in Aug. Cap. 58). 
Valerius Messala leaving the Senate House, said "bonum faustumque 
sit tibi, domuique tiue, Ccesar Auguste, Senatus te consentiens cum 
populo Komano consalutat Patrira Patrem." 

Tiberius born 42 B.C., died 38 A.D. ; reigned 23 years. 

5. Obverse. TI. CAES. DIVI. AVG. F. AVGVSTVS. PONTIF. MAX. Head of 

emperor. 

Reverse. Figure of Clemency. A spear in one hand and olive branch 
in the other. 

6. Qlverse. TI. CAESAR. DIYI. AVG. F. AVGYSTVS. Head of emperor. 



14 ROMAN COINS. 

Reverse. DIWS. AVGVST. DIVI. F. Head of emperor surmounted with 
a star. The star was used as a symbol of the protection of 
heaven. 

Claudius born 10 B.C., died 54 A.D. ; reigned 14 years. 
7. Obverse. DIWS. CLAVDIVS AVGVSTVS. Head of emperor. 
Reverse. EX. s.c. A triumphal quadriga. 

13 8. Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P.M. TRIE. POT. P.P. Head of 

emperor. 

Reverse. AGRIPPOAE. AYGVSTAE. Head of Agrippina, representing 
a young female. 

The inscription on the obverse would run thus : " Tiberius, Claudius 
Caesar, Augustus, Grermanicus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribunitise potestate, 
Pater Patriae." There were two celebrated persons bearing the name 
of Agrippina ; one was niece of Tiberius and mother of Caligula, the 
other was mother of Nero. The image on this coin is that of the 
former. 

9. Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. p. iv. Head of emperor. 
Reverse. IM. ; rest illegible. A bridge, and figure seated. 

May not this coin commemorate the building of the celebrated 
Claudian aqueduct, which bears the emperor's name to this day, and is- 
yet in use at Rome, though partly in ruins ? 

10. Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. p. xi. IMP. P.P. cos. v. Head 

of emperor. 

Reverse. S.P.Q.R. P.P. OB. c.s. The former is enclosed in a wreath or 
garland. 

This would run : " Tiberius, Claudius, Caesar, Augustus, Pontifex 
Maximus, Tribunitiae potestatis undecimo (anno), Imperator, Pater 
Patriae, Consulates quinto (anno). Senatus, Populusque Rornanus, 
Pater Patriae, ob cives servatos." The device of a civic crown is very 
frequently met with. This was usually bestowed upon those who had 
saved the life of a Roman citizen. The senate in bestowing honors 
upon Augustus decreed that a civic crown should be hung from the 
top of his house, and this honor having been assumed by the later 
emperors, a crown of oak leaves with ob circs servatos in the centre is 
often found on the reverse of coins in those Imperial times. 

11. Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P.M. TR. p. Head of emperor. 
Reverse. EX. s.c. OB. c.s. Enclosed in wreath as above. 

" Ex Senatus consulto " began to be invariably used on coins in the 
reign of Augustus . A few republican coins are found with the same 
initials. 

12. Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. P. vi. IMP. xi. Head of 

emperor. 
Reverse. S.P.Q.R. P.P. OB. c.s. Encircled with wreath. 

13. Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. P.X. IMP. P.P. Head of 

emperor. 
Reverse. PACI. AVGVSTAE. "Winged figure of Victory. 

14. Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. p. Head of emperor. 
Reverse. PRAETOR. RECEPT. Emblem of concord representing two 

figures joining hands. 

15. Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. p. vi. IMP. xi. Head of 

emperor. 

Now in the cabinet of Captain Tufnell. 



ROMAN COINS. 15 

Reverse. DE. BRIT ANN. Triumphal arch. Emperor mounted, with 
trophies. 14 

A most interesting coin representing the arch erected by a decree of 
the Senate to the Emperor Claudius on the final subjugation of Britain. 
It was in the year 43 A.D. that the Emperor Claudius sent over a large 
force to conquer the island, which he subsequently joined himself, 
Vespasian, afterwards emperor, being his second in command. This 
triumphal arch no longer exists, and, were it not for the representation 
of it on coins, we should have remained in ignorance of its ever having 
been erected. 

Caligula born 12 A.D., died 41 A.D. ; reigned 3 years 10 months: 

16. Obverse, c. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P.M. TR. POT. Head of emperor. 
Reverse. AGRIPPINAE. MAT. CAES. AVG. GERM. Head of Agrippina. 

The name of Caligula never appears on his coins and Caius is 
always expressed by C. 

The above coin was struck in honor of his mother, Agrippina. 

17. Obverse. c. CAESAR. AVG. PON. M. TR. POT. in. cos. m. Head of 

emperor. 

Reverse . GERMANICVS. CAES. P.O. CAES. AVG. GERM. Head of Ger- 
manicus. 

A coin struck in honor of his father, Germanicus. 
Drusus born 38 B.C., died 8 B.C. 

18. Obverse. NERO. CLAVDIVS. DRVSVS. GERM. AVGVSTVS. IMP. Head of 

Drusus. 

Reverse. DE GERMAN. Triumphal arch, surmounted with equestrian 
figure commemorative of the victories of Drusus in Germany. 

19. Obverse NERONI. CLAVDIO. DRVSO. GERM. cos. DESIGN. Head of the 

young Drusus. 
Reverse- EQVESTER. ORDO. PRINCIPI. JWENT. 

Drusus was male consul 9 B.C. The " ordo equestris" established 
123 B.C. Those who were admitted into the equestrian order enjoyed 
several privileges apart from the rest of the citizens, such as their 
distinction of seats in public assemblies, &c. 

Nero born 37 A.D., died 68 A.D. ; reigned 14 years. 

20. Obverse. NERO. CAESAR. AVG. IMP. Head of emperor. 

Reverse. PONTIF. MAX. TR. POT iv. P.P. EX. s.c. Figure 

holding a spear. 

21. Obverse. NERO. CAESAR AVG. IMP. Head of emperor. 

Reverse. PONTIF. MAX. TR. P.X. cos. iv. P.P. EX. s.c. Armed war- 
rior. 

22. Obverse. NERO. CAESAR. AVG. IMP. Head of emperor. 

Reverse. PONTIF. MAX. TR. POT. iv. P.P. EX. s.c. Encircled in wreath. 

23. Obverse. NERO. CAESAR. AVG. IMP. Head of emperor. 

Reverse. PONTIF. MAX. TR. P.V. cos. iv. P.P. EX. s.c. Armed warrior. 

14 Concerning this coin Sir Edwin Arnold says ("India revisited" 1886, p. 260) : 
" Among the curious treasures of the (Madras) Museum, which the Governor (Sir M. E. 
Grant Duff) has greatly developed, is a golden coin of Claudius, the Emperor, struck to 
commemorate the conquest of Britain, and discovered in excavating a foundation near 
Madras. What chapters of fancy might be written about this aureus, which thus strangely 
links the past and present of England's history, and came, perhaps, to India in the scrip 
of St. Thomas !" 



16 ROMAN (OINS. 

24. Obcerse. XKROXI. CLATD. DIYI. F. CAES. AVG. GERM. IMP. TR. POT. EX. 

s.c. Encircled in "wreath. 

Revirsc. AGRIPP. AVG. DIVI. CLAVD. NERONIS. CAES. MAT. ; rest 
illegible. Two heads, male and female. 

25. Obrersc. ANTOXIA AVOVSTA. Head of Antonia. 

ll< fifse. SACERDOS. DIVI. AVGVSTi. Two torches in upright position. 

Antonia, daughter of Marc Antony, was born 38 B.C. and was 
married to Drusus Nero. The inscription on the reverse of this coin 
may allude to the custom of priestesses (sacerdotes) or flaraens being 
appointed after the deification of the emperors to superintend their 
worship at Borne and elsewhere. 

Antoninus Pius born 86 A.D., died 161 A.D. ; reigned 23 years. 

26. Obverse. AXTOXIXVS. PIUS. AUG. GERM. Head of emperor. 
Rcre-rse. P.M. TR. p. xvin. cos. iv. P.P. A temple. 

This temple may perhaps bear some allusion to that decreed by the 
senate to Antoninus' wife, Faustina, after her death. 

Additional. 

27. Obverse. CAESAR. AVGVSTVS. DIVI. F. PATER. PATRIAE. Head of 

emperor. 
Reverse. TI. CAESAR. AVG. F. TR. POT. xv. Triumphal quadriga. 

28. Obverse. TI. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. F. AVGVSTVS. Head of emperor. 
' .Reverse. IMP. vn. TR. POT. xvn. Triumphal quadriga. 

29. Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P.M. Head of emperor. 
Reverse. CONSTANTIAE. AVGVSTAE. Female figure seated." 

As regards the coins referred to above as being in the possession of 
the Kajah of Travancore, these are described by Bishop C aid well, who 
says : 15 "Of the coins described, all belong to the reigns of the first 
five Roman emperors. 

All are in good preservation with the exception of ISTos. 3 and 4, 
which are partially obliterated. A duplicate of No. 10 is also consider- 
ably worn. Several of the coins appear as fresh as if they had but 
recently issued from the mint. One cannot omit noticing the beauty 
of the design and execution apparent in several of them, particularly 
the heads of Antonia and Agrippina, and the distinct and striking 
individuality of all the heads. 

It would be very desirable to endeavour to collect and examine the 
whole of the coins discovered near Calicut (of which these are a portion, 
and) which are said to have numbered several hundreds, all gold coins, 
and all, it is supposed, Eoman imperial aurei. If this could be done, 
the number of examples of each type could be ascertained, undescribed 
types might be discovered, and a conjecture could be formed at what 
time, or at least, after what time, the coins were concealed where they 
have been found. As far as appears at present, they May have been 
concealed about A.D. 70. If an opinion can be formed from the worn 
or fresh appearance of the coins, as compared with their earlier or later 
date, and the absence of all coins later than the reign of Nero, it would 

15 A description of Roman Imperial aurei found near Calicut on tho Malabar < 
and now in the possession of His Highness the Rajah of Travar 
. s.)li 



ROMAN COINS. 17 

appear that they could not have remained in circulation after A.I). 7i>, 
and probably not so long. 

From the conquest of Egypt by the Romans about B.C. 30 till the 
decline of their power, Roman merchants traded extensively with 
India, and especially with the towns on the Malabar coast, to which 
they learned to sail direct with the monsoon from the ports of the 
Red Sea. 

Having few commodities that would be considered valuable in 
India to exchange for silks and muslins, gems and spices, ivory and 
steel, they were obliged to pay for the greater part of their purchases 
in specie. Roman coins were in consequence introduced into India so 
plentifully that they appear to have formed part of the ordinary 
currency of the country, and even the name of the Roman " Dcnai I'M* " 
has survived to our own day in that of the Indian " Dinar." 

The beauty of the Roman coins, as compared with those of the 
Hindu princes, contributed to their diffusion throughout all parts of 
India, and was, perhaps, the principal cause of their preservation. The 
ordinary Hindu coins were without hesitation broken up to be made 
into jewellery, but the Roman coins must have been considered by 
many as jewels in themselves 16 , and carefully preserved accordingly. 

As the coins in question were discovered in the interior of the 
country (it is said in the bed of a river), it appears improbable that 
the persons who concealed them were themselves Roman merchants ; 
but they may have been native agents of the Roman merchants, or 
persons extensively engaged in trade at the time the Romans main- 
tained their intercourse with India. 

Money and valuables were concealed on emergencies of various kinds, 
but especially on the breaking out of war between two neighbouring 
princes. Only one or two parsons would be acquainted with the place 
of concealment, and, if it happened that they were killed in the war, or 
through the continuance of hostilities unable to return to the place, 
their secret died with them, and it was reserved for well-diggers or 
miners, for the action of rain, or changes in the course of rivers, to 
bring the hidden wealth to light." 

The f ollowing coins are described by Bishop Caldwell : 

No. I. Coin of the Emperor Augustus. 

Obverse. AVGVSTVS. DIVI. F. Head of Augustus, crowned with laurel. 
Reverse. IMP. xr. Diana Venetrix, a figure of the goddess Diaiia, 
represented as a huntress. 

No. II. Coin of Drusus senior, step-son of Augustus. 

Obverse. NERO. CLAVDIVS. DKVSVS. ^GERMANICUS. IMP. Head of Drusus 

crowned witli laurel. 
Reverse. DE. GEUMAUIS. A triumphal arch decked with military 

trophies, on which stands an equestrian figure of Drusus. 

No. III. Coin of Caius, grandson and adopted heir of Augustus. 
Obverse. AVGVSTVS. DIVI. G.F. Head of Augustus, crowned with laurel. 
Reverse. c. CAESAR. AVGVSTI. F. An equestrian figure of Caius, the 
horse at full speed ; infantry standards in the background. 

16 T have seen an aurous on the neck of a cooly woman, wh" 
up the Shevaroy Ghat. Auct. 



18 



ROMAN COINS. 



No. IV. Coin of Caius, referred to above, and his younger brother 
Lucius, grandsons and adopted heirs of Augustus. 

Obverse. CAESAR. AVGVSTVS. DIVI. F. PATER. PATRIAE. Head of Augus- 
tus, crowned with laurel. 

Reverse. Standing figures of Caius and Lucius, each holding a 
shield and spear, with sacerdotal instruments in the background. 
Under the figures, c. L. CAESARES ; over AVGVSTI. F. cos. DKSIG. PRIN. 
JVVENT. 

No. V. Coin of Tiberius. 

Obverse. TI. CAESAR. DIVI. AVO. F. AVGVSTVS. Head of Tiberius. 
Reverse. r>ivi. F. DIVVS. AVGVST. Head of Augustus, surmounted 
with a star. 

No. YI. Coin of Tiberius. 

Obverse. TI. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. F. AVGVSTVS. Head of Tiberius. 
Jiererse. PONTIF. MAXIM. A sitting figure of the emperor, holding in 
one hand a staff, in the other a leafy branch. 

No. VII. Coin of Caligula. 

Olverse. c. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P.M. TR. POT. Head of Caligula, with 

laurel wreath. 
Reverse. GERMANICUS. CAES. P.O. CAES. Ava. GERM. Head of Germanicus, 

son of Drusus and Antonia, and father of the Emperor Caligula. 

No. VIII. Coin of Antonia, wife of Drusus, grandmother of the 
Emperor Caligula, and mother of the Emperor Claudius. 

Obverse. ANTONIA AVGVSTA. Head of Antonia. 
Reverse. SACERDOS. DIVI. AVGVSTI. Two torches. 

No. IX. Coin of Antonia. 

Obverse. ANTONIA. AVGVSTA. Head of Antonia, crowned with a cereal 

wreath. 
Reverse. CONSTANTIAE. AVGVSTI. A standing female figure, emblematic 

of Constancy, leaning on a staff and holding a cornucopia. 

No. X. Coin of Claudius. 

Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG, P.M. TR. p. mi. Head of Claudius, 

crowned with laurel. 
Reverse. IMPER. RECEPT. A representation of the Praetorian camp at 

Home, on the tribunal of which is a sitting figure of the emperor. 

No. XI 17 . Coin of Claudius. 

Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. P. mi. Head of Claudius, 

crowned with laurel. 
Reverse. PACT. AVGVSTAE. A figure of Victory with a caduceus, before 

whom a serpent is retreating. 



17 Another coin in the collection similar to this one, hut of different mintage, has on 
the ohverse TI. CLAvn. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR, r.x. IMF. r.r. 



ROMAN COINS. 19 

No. XII. Coin of Claudius. 

Obverse. TI. CLAYD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. P. vi. IMP. xi. Head of 

Claudius, crowned with laurel. 
Reverse. CONSTANTIAE. AVGVSTI. A sitting female figure. 

No. XIII ' 8 . Coin of Claudius. 

Obverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. TR. P.X. IMP. P.P. Head of 

Claudius, crowned with laurel. 
Reverse. S.P.Q.R. P.P. OB. c.s. A wreath of oak leaves (the civic cro'wn). 

No. XIV 19 . Coin of Agrippina, wife of the Emperor Claudius. 

Obverse. AGRIPPINA:. AVGVSTAE. Head of Agrippina. 
Reverse. TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P.M. TRIE. POT. P.P. Head of 
Claudius, with the usual wreath. 

No. XV. Coin of Nero. 

Obverse. NERONI. CLAVDIO. DRVSO. GERM. cos. DESIGN. Youthful head 

of Nero. 
Reverse. EQESTER. ORDO. PRINCIPI. JVVENT. A shield. 

No- XVI. Coin of Nero. 

Obverse. NERO. CLAUD. 'CAES. DRVSVS. GERM. PRINC. JVVENT. Youthful 

head of Nero. 
Reverse. SACERD. COOPT. IN. OMNI. CONL. SVPRA. NVM. EX. s.c. 20 The 

lituus, tripod, and other sacerdotal instruments. 

No. XVII. Coin of Claudius, struck after his death. 

Obverse. DIVVS. CLAVDIVS. AVGVSTVS. Head of Claudius. 
Reverse. EX. s.c. A carpentum drawn by four horses. 

No. XVIII. Coin of Nero and his mother, Agrippina. 

Obvrse. NERO. CLAVD. DIVI. F. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. IMP. TR. p. cos. 
Heads of Nero and Agrippina. 

Reverse. AGRIFPA, AVG. DIVI. CLAVD. NERONIS. CAEB. MATER. A car 
drawn by four elephants, in which are seated two soldiers, one of 
whom has his helmet elevated on the point of his spear. 

No. XIX. Coin of Nero. 

Obverse. XERO. CAESAR. AVG. IMP. Head of Nero, without the usual 

laurel wreath. 
Reverse. A cereal wreath, within which EX. s.c. ; round the margin 

PONT1F. MAX. TR. P.VI. COS. IIII. P.P. 



18 There are six coins in the collection similar to this, but varying from the XI to 
XVI year of Tribunitian power. 

19 There is another coin similar to this in the collection, but struck apparently from a 
different die. 

3U " Admitted as supernumerary priest into every college by decree of the Senate. " 



ROM \.\ < )f\s. 

No. XX 21 . Coin of Nero. 

01: . VG. IMP. Head of Nero without a wreath. 

Iti'r>-rx<-. i'o.NTiK. MAX. TK. p. vii. P.P. cos. uii. P.P. Figure of a 

Roman soldier, holding in his hands some kind of orb, surrounded 

wit! i a flat rim. 

No. XXI. Coin of Nero. 

Oln-erse. XERO. CAESAU. AVG. IMP. Head of Nero without a wreath. 
lu i 'i i *>'. rox'i IF. MAX. TR. P. vii. cos. mi. p.p. Across the coin EX. 
A female figure resting on a long-jointed staff or spear-shaft, 
holding in her right hand three darts. 

No. XXII. Coin of Nero. 
Diverse. NERO. CAESAR. AVG. IMP. Head of Nero, without a wreath. 

./iV/v/w. POXTIF. MAX. TR. P. VIII. COS. IIII. P.P. Across the Coin EX. 

A standing figure of a soldier leaning on his spear. 

" The next important discovery of gold coins," Dr. Bidie writes, 22 
" took place in the Madura district in a piece of waste land near the 
village of Caliempootoor in the Tyempully taluk in the year 1856. 23 
Two tank-diggers, while excavating brick-earth there, came upon an 
earthen pot, about the size of a mango, containing 63 coins of the 
Roman emperors. The pot was found about 1 j feet below the surface 
of the ground and near the bank of the river Shunmooguni Naddy, 
which is adjacent to the boundary of the Madura and Coimbatore 
districts. Before the authorities became aware of the discovery, 6 of 
the coins were made away with by the finders. The Government then 
directed that the whole of the remaining 57 should be purchased and 
sent to Madras, but only 28 were ultimately received, the remainder 
having been sold or. lost in the Madura district. This is much to be 
regretted, as it is not improbable that, amongst those which were kept 
back, there may have been coins of dynasties not represented in the 
museum. The Madura coins form the chief portion of the Roman series 
in the museum." Concerning this series, Dr. Bidie writes further -' : 
" The whole of the (gold) Roman coins in the museum belong to the 
Imperial .sr/vV-s and extend from Drusus (B.C. 8) to Conimodus, who 
ascended the throne 180 A.D. The following is a list of the emperors, 
etc., to whose reigns the coins belong : 



Drusus, senior 




Domitian 


.. 81 96 A.D. 


(consul) 


8 B.C. 


Nerva 


.. 96 98 ,, 


Tiberius 


14 37 A.D. 


Trajan 


.. 98-117 


Caligula 


37 41 


Hadrian 


.. 117138 


Claudius 


41 54 


Commodus 


.. 180193 


Nero 


54 68 







' n There is a coin similar to this in the collection, but struck, apparently, when 
Tribune for the tenth time, and from an improved die. 

22 Catalogue of Coins in the Madras Museum, 1874, p. 2. 

33 " About the same time three washerwomen of Karur, while searching for Fuller's 
earth, came upon a large chatty containing some hundreds, if not thousands, of d, 
There were five or six Madras measures of them. They were sold to Chetties for half their 
weight in rupees, and the finders have bought themselves land and built good houses with 
the proceeds. I cannot hear that a single denarius remained unmelted. My informant 
believes that most of them were like an Augustus I showed him." The Rev. Heury 
Little, Madras Christian College Magazine, December 1883, p. 338. 

24 I.e., p. o. 



ROMAN COINS. 21 

It will be observed that there are two breaks iu the series, viz., from 
68 to 81 A.D., and again from 138 to 180 A.D. On the whole, however, 
we have reason to be thankful for these rare and interesting records of 
the past, and it is quite within the range of possibility that the gaps 
may, in the course of time, be duly filled up by future finds of hidden 
treasure. As the collection stands even now, it looks so complete that 
one might almost suppose the coins had been carried to the East in the 
cabinet of some ancient coin collector, instead of having been intro- 
duced for purposes of commerce. It is to be regretted that there are no 
coins of the emperors who succeeded Commodus and reigned until the 
upper empire ceased and the anarchy of the thirty tyrants began." 

In 1878 a find of Roman coins was made near Karur in the Coim- 
batore district, concerning which the Rev. Henry Little writes as 
follows 25 : " One afternoon, last August (1882), while busy in my study, 
a native friend entered and placed on my table six small pieces of flat 
metal, almost round and a little larger than four-anna pieces, very black- 
looking, and much covered with earthy matter. To the inquiry what 
are these, an answer to the effect that they might be old Indian coins 
was returned, and then other matters were talked about. During this 
conversation one of the pieces of medal was rubbed quite mechanically 
a few times over the cloth on the table, and, when my eye next fell upon 
it, in silvery sheen and in somewhat antique Roman characters there 
appeared to my astonished gaze the letters MAX .... PONT. I at once 
saw that the black lumps in my hand were Roman coins, and when 
they had been cleaned by acid and ' the image and superscription ' 
brought out there was no further room for doubt. I learnt that a So wear 
had about a hundred of these coins, and arrangements were made to 
obtain possession of them as expeditionary as possible. It seems they 
were dug up by a famine cooly in 1878 while engaged in deepening a 
water-course near Karur in the Coimbatore district, and that there 
were about 500 of them in an earthen pot. Two-thirds were melted to 
make bangles and what fell to me was the remainder. 

My Roman coins are silver denarii, the New Testament penny . 
For five centuries after the founding of Rome, that is up to the third 
century B.C., the Romans nad copper money only. In 269 B.C. 
silver coins were struck, and during the ascendency of Julius Caesar a 
gold coinage was introduced, the commonest piece being the aurcH,^ 
equal to 25 denarii. The weight of the denarius varied. In the time 
of Augustus 84 were struck for a Roman pound, making each coin to be 
about 60 grains. Several of those in my possession are about 58 grains 
in weight, showing that the lapse of time has told very little upon 
them, and with respect to other matters the same remark applies. The 
letters of the inscriptions are clear and the ' image ' of the emperors is 
very bold and distinct, suggesting the inference that soon after they 
left the mint these coins were buried, and so suffered little loss by 
passing frequently from hand to hand. 

" Twenty-seven of the coins belong to the reign of Augustus, and 
ninety to that of Tiberius. Although all the former commemorate the 
same event, they are not all from one die. On the obverse of these 
coins is a laureate head of Augustus, facing to the right, and beginning 
from the right-hand side of the bust the inscription runs as follows : 

25 Madias Christian College Magazine, October 1883, pp. 219-228. 



2 ROMAN COINS. 

CAESAR. AVOVSTVS. Divi. F. PATKR. p.viRiAE. On tlie reverse side stand 
two draped figures, each grasping a shield and spear which are grounded 
between them. Above the shields are a lituus or divining rod and a 
simpulum or small vessel for pouring libations of wine to the gods, which 
from its small size gave rise to the proverb excitare fluctu* in xit/tpulo, i.e., 
' much ado about nothing.' Below the figure, we read c. L. CAESARES., 
and following on from the right AVGVSTI. F. cos. DESIGN. PRIXC. 
JVVENT." 

" On the second coin we have a laureate head of Tiberius facing to 
the right with the following inscription: TI. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. F. 

AVGVSTVS On the reverse side of the coin we have a female 

figure seated on a chair of state, In her right hand is a spear, and the 
left holds a branch ; the inscription is PONTIF. MAXIM., an abbreviation 
of Pontifex Maximus." 

As regards the discovery of Roman copper coins in Southern India, 
Mr. Sewell says : 26 " A number of coins of all ages have been found at 
the ' Seven Pagodas', amongst others, Roman, Chinese and Persian. A 
Roman coin damaged, but believed to be of Theodosius (A.D. 393), 
formed part of Colonel Mackenzie's collection." The reading given by 
Prinsep 27 of the latter coin, which was found at the Seven Pagodas 
together with several others bearing the same device, but of smaller 
size, is : 

Obverse. . . . . BOSITJS. p p Head with star on the right. 

Reverse. GLORIA. ROMANORUM. Three figures standing, armed with 
spears. 

After describing 28 the finds of Roman gold coins as affording testi- 
mony of the frequent intercourse of Roman traders with the Indian 
Ocean, Sir Walter Elliot goes on to say : " Still more decisive proof is 
supplied by the existence of great numbers of Roman coins occurring 
with Chinese and Arabian pieces along the Coromandel coast. The 
Roman specimens are chiefly oboli, much effaced, but among them I 
have found the epigraphs of Valentinian, Theodosius, and Eudocia. 
These are found, after every high wind, not in one or two places, but 
at frequent intervals, indicating an extensive commerce between China 
and the Red Sea, of which the Coromandel coast seems to have been the 
emporium. The Western traders must either have circumnavigated 
Ceylon or come through the Paumban passage, probably by the latter 
way, but in either case must have communicated freely with Ceylon." 
Further, Sir Walter Elliot says elsewhere 29 on the same subject : 
" Along the Coromandel coast, from Nellore as far south as Cuddalore 
and Pondicherry, a class of thin copper die-struck coins, which, 
although not directly connected with the Andhra type, may be 
appropriately considered next. They are found in considerable 
numbers in or near dunes and sand-knolls in the vicinity of the kupams 
or fishirg hamlets that stud the shore, together with Roman oboli, 
perforated Chinese coins, bits of lead and other metal, beads, fragments 
of charcoal, &c. 



26 Op. cit., vol. i, p. 190. 

" Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 1832, vol. i, p. 406, pi. x, fig. 45. 

28 Ind. Ant. 1873, vol. ii. p. 21:.'. 

Numisuwt Orient. Coins of Southern India, 188-5, p. 35. 



ROMAN COINS. 23 

" These are collected by the wives and children of the fishermen 
after gales of wind or heavy rains, and purchased from them by the 
itinerant pedlars, called Labis and Merkayars, in exchange for useful 
necessaries, by whom they are sold to braziers and coppersmiths. The 
discovery of articles of this description in such localities indicates the 
existence of a considerable maritime trade in former times, probably 
during the first four or five centuries of the Christian era. 

" The Roman coins are all of the smallest value, and are generally 
worn smooth, but on two or three the names of Valentinian and 
Eudocia have been read." It is much to be regretted that these coins 
are nearly always so worn that it is impossible to decipher their 
legend, and this is notably the case with the coins which are found, from 
time to time, in the Madura district. As regards this district, Mr. Sewell 
says : 30 " Mr. Scott, Pleader in the District Court of Madura, is in posses- 
sion of a very fine collection of ancient coins, mostly found at Madura 

The collection includes a large number of Eoman copper coins 

(among which I noticed coins of Honorius and Arcadius), found in 
the bed of the river, as well as a Chinese coin from the same place. 
The discovery of so many copper coins of the Eoman empire seems to 
argue the existence at Madura of a Eoman colony at one period. If 
the coins were merely gold or silver, the discovery would not be so 
significant." 

To the Eev. James E. Tracy I am indebted for the following list 
of Eoman coins in his cabinet, which were collected in the Madura 
district. 

GOLD. 

Aureus of Domitian. 

Obverse. Laureate head of emperor r. GERMAJSTIC. IMP. CAES. DOMITI- 

ANVS AUG. 
Reverse. Helineted head of emperor r. P.M.TR. POT. in. IMP. v. cos. x. 

P.P. 

Aureus of Theodosius. 

Obrerse. Head of emperor, with the legend of his names and titles. 
Reverse. Standing figures of the two sons of the emperor, and the 
legend SALVS. REIPVBLICAE. In the exergxun CONOB. 

Found in the Tirumangalam taluk. 

Aureus of Constans II ? 
Found in the Tirumangalam taluk. 

Copper coins of Theodosius, one of Honorius (?), and several other 
copper Roman coins with indistinct legends from Madura. 

Two Roman copper coins have been recently sent to the Madras 
Museum from Keelakurai, on the Madura coast, where they were found 
by Mr. J. P. James, Port officer, together with a large number of Bud- 
dhist, Chola, Pandyan, and other coins, on which I shall report in 
detail elsewhere. Both coins are very much worn, and the legends on 
the obverse are entirely illegible. One bears on the obverse the head of 
some emperor, and on the reverse a cross within a circle ; while the 

' >p. cit., vol. i, pp. 285 and 291. 



24 ROMAN COINS. 

other boars on the obverse the head of an emperor (Decentius or Julia- 
nus II ?), and on the reverse VOT. xv. MULT. xx. in four lines within a 
laurel wreath fastened above with a circular ornament. As regards 
the question how the Roman coins were originally brought to India, 
I may with advantage quote extracts from the article by Captain Drury 31 
to which I have already referred. " We will now/' he says, ' ' consider, 
in a brief and somewhat imperfect sketch, to what extent and in what 
manner the Roman trade first arose and was subsequently carried on 
with the countries of the East, and more especially with that part of 
India, to which w*e would more exclusively refer, the Malabar coast, 
and also what degree of information the Romans actually possessed of 
this part of the country, and what kind of commodities were chiefly 
sought for their luxury or use. 

" Previous to their conquest of Egypt, the Romans derived the benefits 
of Eastern commerce indirectly from the merchants of that country, 
who, under the reign of Alexander and the Ptolemies, monopolised the 
entire trade of India and the adjacent countries. Besides this route, 
the articles of Indian produce and manufacture were imported into 
Europe by a longer and more tedious way than that cf the Red Sea. 
Being brought in vessels up the Persian Gulf and Euphrates, they v. 
conveyed thence across land to Palmyra, then the grand emporium of 
Eastern commerce, and which, in its central position, became an impor- 
tant place from its flourishing and prosperous trade. From Palmyra 
the goods were carried to the different ports of Syria, and thence dis- 
tributed to the various countries bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. 
At last the Romans, having subjected Greece and Syria to their sway 
and overcome the Republic of Carthage, made a descent upon Egypt, 
which soon yielded to the force of their arms, and from this time that 
rich and celebrated country was transformed into a Roman province. 
This happened during the reign of Augustus, and about thirty years 
before the birth of Christ. 

" From this time we may conclude that all direct intercourse of the 
Romans with the East commenced. 32 

' ' They followed up their victories with that characteristic energy for 
an increased trade which they ever displayed after the subjection of a 

31 Journ., As. Soc., Beng., 1851, vol. xx, pp. 376-380. 

32 Dr. G. Oppert writes (Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 1879, vol. xxiv, 
pp. 209-210) : " The more the commerce increased between India and the Roman Em; 
the greater progress was also made in the art of navigation. The Western trade was 
viewed in India with favorable eyes, and the occasional embassies which we IT sent from 
India to Roman emperors show this fact plainly. Thus we hear of Indian envoys with 
precious presents being sent to Augustus, Claudius, Antoninus Pius, and Julianus. 

' ' With respect to the knowledge concerning India, it is certain that the author of the 
Periplus (Maris Erythryei) did not double Cape Comorin, but Plinius was acquainted with 
the Koromandel Coast, and Ptolemy's knowledge embraced Burmah and even ( 'liina. 
This country was visited by a Greek merchant Alexandros, who "stopped at Kaiiton. 
Markianos of Heraklea and Ammianus Marcellinus provide on these points still more accu- 
rate accounts. We may, perhaps, be allowed to call Naustathmos (Karaci), Thoophila 
(Suradara) in Gujarat, Byzantium on the Malabar coast and other places Grecian eoltu> 

" As long as Rome was the sole capital of the empire, Indian goods went from Alex- 
andria mainly to Rome ; but when the empire became divided, Byzantium, or as it is now 
called Constantinopolis, participated in the receipt of the Eastern articles. Among : 
merchants who met in Alexandria, many Hindus were to be found, though the 
the river-god Indus in that town was probably the gift of a Greek and not of a Hindu. 
The presence of Brahmans is even reported from Constantinople." 



ROMAN COINS. 25 

foreign people, and the glorious prospect of an undivided command of 
the Eastern trade added an unusual degree of vigour to their subse- 
quent proceedings. 

" Although the occupation of Egypt by the Eomans offered them 
a far greater facility of communicating with India, yet their progress 
in this respect appears to have been slow and gradual, Augustus pro- 
bably being more desirous of firmly establishing his authority in that 
country than extending his views to the conquest of remoter lands. 
No expedition to the countries bordering on the Red Sea appears to 
have been meditated till some seventy or eighty years after the 
Egyptian conquest. During all this time the trade had been carried 
on by Greek or Egyptian vessels. Without venturing far to sea, the 
commanders of these ships, starting from the port of Berenice (which 
still retains its ancient name), were in the habit of creeping slowly along 
the Arabian coast up the Persian Gulf, and never, perhaps, reaching 
farther than the mouths of the Indus, till at last a certain commander, 
more venturesome ihan his predecessors, boldly pushed across the ocean, 
and, favored by the monsoon, safely reached the port of Musiris on the 
Malabar coast. 33 This successful voyage was but the prelude to other 
more fortunate enterprises, and so rapid became the increase of com- 
munication that not long afterwards a fleet of one-hundred and twenty 
sail was annually wafted by the assistance of the monsoon from the 
Red Sea to the coast of Malabar, from which time a regular trade was 
established between the ports of Egypt and the Red Sea and those 
of the western coast of India. 

"From the death of Augustus to the elevation of Trajan to the 
imperial throne, no important additions had been made to the limits 
of the empire with the exception of Britain. Trajan soon began to 
entertain the idea of carrying the Roman arms to the East, and, circum- 
navigating the coast of Arabia, vainly hoped at length to reach the 
shores of India ; but the expedition was so far unsuccessful, and, the 
death of that emperor soon after taking place, the project was entirely 
abandoned by his successor Hadrian. 

" The attempt of Trajan, who died 117 A.D., was never repeated by 
his successors, nor does there appear to have been any fresh acquisition 
made to the knowledge hitherto obtained of the western part of India 
until the reign of Justinian, when, owing to the increase of the silk 
trade, the rival power of the Persians sprang up. The empire was even 
then in its decline, and the traffic, and, consequently, the dominion over 
these seas being successfully disputed by a maritime people, the Romans 
were soon compelled to share, and finally to abandon, the profits of their 
commercial dealings with India, which had hitherto been crowned with 
such advantage and success. 

"Even the information which the most celebrated writers of the 
first and second centuries had obtained of India was most inaccurate 



33 It is not exactly known where the present position of Musiris lies, or even of Barace, 
another port which was not far from it. Robertson adopting the opinion of Major fiennell 
ia inclined to fix them both between the modern towns of Gk>a and Tellichmy, rely ing on 
a remark of Pliny that " they were not far distant from Cottonara, a country where pepper 
is produced in great abundance." In this case Barace might be Barcoor, as generally 
supposed, and Musiris in all probability Mangalorc. 

4 



26 



ROMAN <0[.\*. 



and imperfect, and Strabo, Ptolemy, Pliny, find others 3 * equally ac- 
knowledge and regret the scanty materials which they possessed regard- 
ing the true position and places of the Indian continent ; yet Cape 
Comorin was even then celebrated for its pearl-fisheries, and Ceylon, 
discovered under the reign of the Emperor Claudius, had already sent 
an embassy to Rome. 

" It is most probable that the "Romans never exerted themselves to 
penetrate to any great distance for the commodities they procured from 
the East, being contented to carry on their trade at those markets on the 
Malabar coast which were easiest of access and sufficient for the pur- 
poses required. One or more ports, such as Musiris or Barace, were most 
likely the chosen spots to which were gathered the necessary products 
of the Indian countries from whatever side they were brought, and from 
thence they were shipped to Egypt, and thence to the shores of Italy. 
Merchandise was also conveyed, and, perhaps, still more frequently than 
by sea, across the country, enriching several towns and cities on the 
route which became the emporia of such commercial goods as were 
despatched from the eastern to the western coast. 

" Thus the modern town of Arambooly, called Arguropolis by the 
Greeks, was celebrated in those days for its extent and for the busy 
trade carried on there. Ptolemy also and Pliny mention Kotar or 
Nagercoil under the names of Cottiara and Cottora metropolis ; while 
the Grreek and Egyptian mariners being afraid of doubling Cape 
Comorin, 35 used to find a safe anchorage for their vessels in the little 
harbours of Covalum and Colachull to the northern part of that cape, 
and which were called in those days the former Colis or Colias and 
the latter Cojaci. 

" The chief articles of export from India during the time of the 
occupation of Egypt by the Romans were spices of various kinds, 
diamonds and other precious stones, ivory, pearls, silk, &c., the latter 
probably brought from China only. Cinnamon was perhaps more 
extensively imported from Arabia or the eastern coast of Africa, iu 



circa 


8 A 


.D. 


circa 


23 




circa 


77 




per/taps 


81- 96 




perhaps 


138-161 




perhaps 


150-160 




perhaps 


166-180 




circa 


214 




circa 


225 





31 ' ' The principal classical works which speak of India include 

Diodorus Siculus 

Strabo 

Pliny 

Periplus M iris Eijthraei 

Ptolemy 

Arrian 

Pausanias 

Bardesanes 

2Elian 

Dion Chrysostom and Plutarch (about 100 A.D.) also refer to India, and the Indian 
embassies are described by Strabo, Suetonius, Dion Cassius, and Pliny ; but with exception, 
perhaps, of Pliny, -the Roman historians seem to have had very little original information 
as to the far East." C. Reignier Conder, R.E. Syrian Stone Lore, 1886, p. 231. 

35 "It (Cape Comorin) is called Komaria Akron, Cape Komaria, by Ptolemy, and 
Komarei or simply Komir by the author of the Periplus. The latter says : " After Baknre 
occurs the mountain called Pyrrhos (or the Red) towards the south, near another district 
of the country, called Paralia (where the pearl-fisheries are which belong to king Pandion) 
and a city of the name of Kolkhoi. In this tract the first place met with is called Balita, 
which his a good harbour and a village on its shore. Next to this is another place 
called Komar, where is the cape of the same name and a haven." Bishop Caldwell's 
History of TiuneveUy, 1881, p. 19. 

Mr. Scott suggests that tho Pyrrhos of the author of the Periplus is probably 
Triehoagode, "Terusen k5du," the holy red point or mountain. 



ROMAN COINS, 27 

allusion to which a modern writer has remarked that the seaport of 
Aden was in those days used by the Romans as an entrepot for the mer- 
chandise passing from India to Egypt. That seaport was apparently 
the same place which Ptolemy named ' Arabire emporium,' and the author 
of the Periplus tells us that a little before his time it was destroyed by 
the Romans ; but it is to be presumed that the Romans followed up 
their victory by occupation, for the position, assigned in the Periplus to 
Arabia Felix together with the principle that it is nature which chiefly 
determines the site of a great maritime emporium proves that the place 
in question was no other than Aden, which in the fifth century was the 
Roman emporium of the Indian trade." Pepper was entirely supplied 
from the Malabar coast, and large quantities were shipped every season 
for the markets at Rome, where it was esteemed one of the greatest 
luxuries of the day. When Alaric was besieging Rome in the fifth 
century and condescended to accept a ransom for the city r , he expressly 
stipulated for the deliverance ' of 3,000 Ib. of pepper/ so much value 
was attached to that commodity. All sorts of precious stones were 
eagerly sought after by the wealthier inhabitants, though it is singular 
that the Romans set a higher value on pearls than they did on diamonds. 
The former were procured as at the present day near Ceylon and Cape 
Comorin, and the mines at Sumbhalapura, in Bengal, are probably the 
same which yielded their treasures for the Roman merchants some 
twenty centuries ago. Lastly, ivory, ebony, and a few commodities of 
minor importance completed the list of useful or luxurious articles 
which were transmitted from this country. 

" From the above brief sketch of the communication which the Romans 
had with the western coast of India and the enumeration of the chief 
articles of commerce, which attracted their merchants hither for the 
purposes of trade, we have little occasion to be surprised at the discovery 
of such coins as have from time to time been found in this country. 
The great difficulty lies in determining by whom and how they were 
actually brought here, and how many centuries may have passed away 
since they were either lost or deposited in those spots whence they are 
now taken. The oldest coins in the present collection are those of 
Augustus and the latest those of Antoninus Pius, embracing a period of 
about one-hundred and forty years. We must, therefore, conclude that 
they were all brought here subsequent to, or during the reign of, the 
last-mentioned emperor, while the very remarkable state of preservation 
in which they exist would lead us to suppose that they had never been in 
extensive circulation or use previously. It can be no matter of surprise 
that no other memorials of those times are found upon this coast, such as 
buildings, &c., for the ancients obtained no footing in the country, but 
merely came and returned with their ships laden with merchandise. 

"In the absence of all direct testimony as to the probable fact of these 
coins having been conveyed here by the Romo-Egyptian traders, 
there is another supposition, worthy of taking into consideration, whether 
they may not have been brought here by those Jewish refugees, who, 
emigrating from Palestine about the year 68 A.D., spread themselves 
over this part of the continent at that early period. That country was 
then a Roman province, and, consequently, Roman money was there in 
circulation. At that time ton thousand Jews with their families camo 
and settled on the coast of Malabar, and dispersed themselves in various 
1 'laces, chiefly on th< sea coast. Now supposing several emigrations of 



28 ROMAN 

the kind to have succeeded each other and taken place during the third 
and fourth centuries (Palestine did not cease to be a Roman province 
until the beginning of the seventh century), it is not unlikely that these 
coins may have been brought by them, and either from suffering 
persecution or oppression at the hands of the natives, they may have 
buried these treasures for greater security or concealment ; but besides 
the Jews, the Nestorian Christians may have been instrumental in 
conveying foreign coins to these countries. In 485 A.D., they obtained 
a footing in Persia, whence they spread into almost every country of 
the East ; but I do not consider this theory entitled to so much con- 
sideration from the fact of the coins being found in greater numbers on 
or near to the sea coast, on which account it would assuredly be more 
plausible to support the idea of their having been brought by the 
Komans from Egypt, or the Jews from Palestine, presuming the latter 
people in their emigration came either by way of the Red Sea or the 
Persian Gulf. " 



ROMAN COINS. 



29 



CATALOGUE 



OF 



BOMAN COINS. 

The [*] asterisk signifies thatjthe coin was found in Southern India. 



No. 


Weight. 1 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






CAIUS OCTAVIUS C^EPEAS AUGUSTUS. 






29 B.C.-14 A.D. 


i. 


55-8 


(a) SI1 
DIVI. F. PATER. 


,VER. 
AVGVSTI. F. COS. . . In 

exergum CJESARES. Two 
shields and spears sup- 
ported by two figures. 


PATROE. Head of Augus- 
tus r. 


2* 




OESAR. AVGVSTVS. Head of 
Augustus r. 


Inscription illegible. Two 
shields and spears sup- 
ported by two figures. 






(b) COPPER. 



95-5 



141-7 



206-5 



mv. 



Augustus 1. 



Head of PROVIDE [NTIA]. Infield s.c. 
A square altar divided into 
compartments. 



AVGVSTVS. PATER. Head of 
Augustus 1. 



s. c. in field. 

Fasces ? 



(c) BRASS. 



DI] WS. CAESAR. AUG. 

Head of Augustus 1. 



. . . . AVGVSTA. In exer- 
gum s.c. Ceres seated 1., 
holding ears of corn (?) in 
r. hand, lighted torch in 



The weight is given in grains. 



30 



ROM.A.N COINS. 



No. Weight. 



Obverso. 






DEUSUS SENIOR, 

\>n.. H ]$.(.'. 



GOLD. 



ll;V37 XKRO. CLAVD CJES. DRVSVS. 

(,KI:M Unlaureate 

head of Drusus 1. 



2* 



3* 



115-73 



117-41 



XERO. CLAVD. DRTSVS. GERM. 
PRIXCP. JVVEXT. Vll- 

laureate head of Drusus 1. 



[SACERD]. COOPT. ix. OMX. 
COXL. sur. NUM. In tlie 
centre a caldron-like 
vc >sel on tliree legs, -with 
a ladle-like implement 
above it ; to r. the lituus or 
crooked statt' of the Augur, 
with which he divided the 
face of the heavens. 



GERMAXICUS. IMP. Lau- 
reate head of Drusus 1. 



XERO. CLAVDIVS. i-Rvsvs. { Triumphal arch surmounted 

by two human figures 
seated and an equestrian 
r., holding a spear ; horse 
prancing. Below the h- 
and over the crown of the 
arch DE 



4* 



115-55 



1* 



114-8 



DRVSVS. 

GERMANICVS. IMP. LaU- 

reate head of Drusus 1. 



Trophy, consisting of a 
standard, two shields 
crossed, and arrows. 
Round the margin, 

between the rays of the 
trophy, DE. GEKMAXIS. 



ANTONIA, 

WIFE OF DRUSUS. 



GOLD. 



AVGVSTA. Head 
of Antonia, crowned with 
a cereal wreath. 



CONS [TANTIAE]. AVGVSTI. A 
standing female figure, 
emblematic of Constancy, 
leaning on a staff and 
holding a cornucopia. 



ROMAN COINS. 



31 



Xo. Weight. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



TIBEEIUS CLAUDIUS NEEO. 
14-37 A.D. 



GOLD. 



1* 



2* 



' 109-83 



116-28 



4* 



6* 



59-1 



57-1 



1* 



117-11 



TI. C^ESAE. DIVI. AVG. F. 

AVGVSTVS. Laureate head 
of Tiberius r. 



CAESAR. AVGVSTVS. DIVI. F. 

PATER. PATRICE. Laureate 
head of Tiberius r. 



115'13 ' TI. OESAR. DIVI AVG. F. 

AVGVSTVS. Laureate head 
of Tiberius r. 



PONTIF. MAXIM. Vesta sit- 
ting on a square seat r. ; a 
spear in r. hand, braixch 
(?) in 1. 



TI. OESAR A 

triumphal quadriga ; 

horses walking r. 



DIVI. AVG DIVI. P. 

Laureate head r. 



SILVER. 1 



TI. (LESAR. DIVI. AVG. F. 

AVGVST. . . Laureate head 
of Tiberius r. 



PONTIF. MAXIM. Female figure 
seated r., holding spear in 
r. hand, branch in 1. 



CAIUS C^ESAE CALIGULA. 

37-41 A.D. 
GOLD. 



C. OESAR. AVG. GERM. P.M. 

TR. POT. Laureate head of 
Caligula r. 



GERMANIC VS. OES. P.O. C^ES. 

AUG. GERM. Unlaureate 
head of Germanicus r. 



1 A coin of this type has been quite recently found at Be/wada by 
Mr. A. Rea of the Archaeological Survey. 



ROMAN COINS 



No. Weight. 



Obvcrsi). 



Reverse. 



1* 



115-43 



115-32 



3* 

4* 
5* 

6* 



117-32 



116-5 



115-72 



1* 



115-13 



TIBEEIUS CLAUDIUS DEUSUS GEEMANICUS. 
41-54 A.D. 



GOLD. 



XI. CLAVD. OESAR. AVO. P.M. 

TR. P.X. IMP. P.P. Lau- 
reate head of Claudius r. 



TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P. M. 

TR. P. vi. IMP. xi. Lau- 
reate head of Claudius r. 



TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. P.M. 

IR. P.X. IMP. P.P. Lau- 
reate head of Claudius r. 



TI. CLAVD. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. 

P.M. TR Lau- 
reate head of Claudius r. 



DIVVS. CLAVD IVS. AVGVSTVS. 

Laureate head of Claudius 
1. 



Oak wreath in field, en- 
circling the inscription 
s. P. Q. R. 

p. P. 
OB. c. s. 

DE. BRIT ANN . . . On the 

frieze of a triumphal arch, 
surmounted by an eques- 
trian figure 1. and trophies 
of arms at each corner. 



PACI. AV LOVST.S:]. Winged 
naked figure, holding in 
r. hand ?, in 1. caduceus 
held over head of an erect 
snake. 



NERO. CLATTD. WES. DRVSVS. 
GERM. PRINC. JVVENT. Un- 

laureate head of Drusus, 
senior, 1. 

Quadriga, drawn by horses 
r. EX. s. c. in exergum. 



TIBEEIUS CLAUDIUS NEEO DRUSUS. 
54-68 A.D. 



GOLD. 



NERO. OESAR. AVQ. 

Head of Nero r. 



IMP. 



PONTIF. MAX. TR. P. VII. COS. 

viii. P.P. Draped figure 
of Ceres 1. EX. s. c. in 
field. 



ROMAN COINS. 



33 



No. Weight. 



Obverse, 



Reverse. 



TIBEEIUS CLAUDIUS NEEO DRTJ8US 
54-68 A.D. continued. 



GOLD continued. 



114-8 



117-11 



117-6 



116-62 



112-86 



NERO. C^SAR. AVG 

Head of Nero r. 

NERO. C/ESAR. AVG. IMP. 

Head of Nero r. 



7* 117-96 
8* I 115-97 
117-1 



The same as 1, 



PONTIF. MAX. TR In the 

field a wreath, enclosing 
the legend EX. s. c. 



PONTIF. MAX. TR. P. VI. COS. 

mi. P.P. In the field a 
wreath enclosing the legend 



PONTIF. MAX. TR. P. II. P.P. 

In the field a wreath en- 
closing the legend EX. s. c. 



PONTIF. MAX. TR. P. VIIII. COS. 

mi. P.P. Full length figure 
1, with clothes descending 
to the knees ; helmet on 
head, 1. foot resting on a 
pedestal, 1. knee bent and 
supporting H globe (?) held 
in the hands. EX. s. c. in 
the field. 



PONTIF. MAX In the 

field EX. s.c. A full length 
figure 1., clothed, helmet 
on head, and having wing- 
ed sandals ; r. knee raised 
and bent, foot resting on 
pedestal ; r. hand holding 
quiver, 1. hand grasping 
spear. 



34 



TIOMAN COINS. 



No. Weight. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



1* 



2* 



4* 



113-83 



110-75 



114-02 



111-91 



FLAVIUS DOMITIANUS O2ESAK. 



81-96 A.D. 



GOLD. 



IMP. CJES. DOMITIANV8. AVG. 

P.M. Laureate head of 
Domitian r. 



6* 



115-11 



106-97 



163 



IMP. C,ES. DOMIT. AVO. GERM. 

P.M Lau- 
reate head of Domitian r. 

IMP. CMS. DOMITIAXVS. AUG. 

P.M. Laureate head of 
Domitian r. 



IMP. CMS. DOMIT. AVG. GERM. 

P.M. TR. p.v. Laureate 
head of Domitian r. 

DOMITIANYS. AVGVSTYS. GER- 

MANICYS. Laureate head 
of Domitian r. 



JVPPITER. CONSERVATOR. 

Eagle on perch, with ex- 
tended wings. 



DOMIT. AVGVSTA. IMP. DOMIT. 

Head of Domitian ; back 
hair in plaits and tied in 
long-looped knots ; shoul- 
ders draped. 

IMP. . . . Seated nude figure 
of Jupiter. 



TR. POT. II. COS. VIII. DES. X. 

p.p. Standing figure of 
Domitian r., draped as 
Mars, with shield on 1. 
arm, and throwing javelin 
with r. hand. 

IMP. xi. cos. xii. . . P.P. The 
emperor standing 1., robed 
as Jupiter. 

COS. XIII. LVD. SXC. FECIT. 

Salic priest standing 1., 
with rod in r. hand and 
sacred shield on 1. arm. 



COPPER. 



IMP. C.ES. DOMIT. AVG. GERM. 
COS. XII. CENS. PER. P. P. 

Laureate head of Domitian 
r. 



s. c. in 

exergum. Ceres seated r. ; 
a figure standing in front 
of her ; in background 
stem of a galley. 



ROMAN COINS. 



35 



No. 



Weight. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



FLAVIUS DOMITIANUS C^ESAE continued. 

81-96 A.D. continued. 

COPPER continued. 



159-5 



166-6 



GERM. COS. XII. 

CEXS. PER. P.P. Laureate 
head of Doniitian r. 



. . . VESP. F. DOMITIAN . . . 

cos. vn. Laureate head of 
Domitian r. 



[FIDEI]. PVBLICJE. In the 
field s.c. A female stand- 
ing ; in 1. hand a basket of 
fruit (?), in r. two ears of 
corn and a poppy. 

Inscription illegible, s. c. in 
the field. Minerva stand- 
ing with spear in r. hand, 
circular shield on 1. arm. 



MAECUS COCCEIUS NEEVA. 
96-98 A.D. 



GOLD. 



1* 



2* 



111-52 



115-36 



IMP. NERVA. C/ES. AVG. P.M. 

TR. POT. Laureate head 
of Nerva r. 



IMP. NERVA. CJES. AVG. P.M. 

TR. P. cos. ii. P. P. Lau- 
reate head of Nerva r. 



COS. III. PATER. PATRIJE. A 

small vessel, a torch, a 
vase-like vessel, and the 
lituus. 



CONCORDIA 



EXERCITVVM. 



Two hands joined and 
holding a military ensign 
crowned with an eagle. 
The foot of the ensign 
rests on the prow of a 
vessel. 



MAECUS ULPIUS TEAJANUS CEINITUS. 
98-117 A.D. 



GOLD. 



1* 



108-31 



IMP. TRATAXO. AVG. GER. DAC. 

P.M. TR. P. Laureate head 
of Trajan r. 



COS. V. P.P. S.P.Q.R. OPTIMO. 

PRINC. A full length 
figure 1., draped ; holding 
a palm loaf (?) in r. hand 
and spear in 1. 



36 



ROMAN COINS. 



No. 


Weight. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






PUBLTUS ^ELIUS HADEIANUS. 






117-138 A.D. 






GOLD. 


1* 


113-2 


IMP. CAESAR. TRAIAN. HADRI- 

AXVS. AVG. Laureate head 
of Hadrian r. 


cos. in. A draped figure 1., 
holding? inr. haud. 


TITUS AUEELIUS FULVIUS BOIONIUS 






AEEIUS ANTONINUS. 






138-161 A.D. 






(a) SILVEE. 


1 


45-3 


ANTONiNvs. PITS. AVG. Lau- 


POXTIF. TR. P. VIII. COS. III. 






reate head of Antoninus r. 


Britannia (?) seated 1. 


2 


163-5 


(*) B 

[ANT] ONINVS. AYG. PI vs. 
Head of Antoninus r., dia- 
demed 


RASS. 
R. POTX. co In the 


field s c. Standing figure 1., 
holding spear in r. hand, ? 
inl. 






(<0 COPPER. 


3 


398-4 


IMP. C.ES. T. JEL. HADR. AN- 

TONINVS. AUG. Head of 


Inscription illegible. Figure 
seated. 






Antoninus r., diademed. 




4 


41-9 


IMP . . . ivs. AVG .... Head 
of Antoninus r., with ra- 
diate crown. 


[vicl TORIA. Standing figure 
of Victory 1. 


MAECUS ANNIUS YEEUS CATILIUS SEVEEUS. 






161-180 A.D. 






SILVER. 


I 


37-9 


IMP. C. M. AVB . . ALEXANP. 

AVG. Laureate head of 
Marcus Aurelius r. 


VIRTVS. Armed figure r., 
holding spear in r. hand, 
shield in 1. 



KOMAN COINS. 



37 



No. 



Weight. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



MARCUS ANNIUS VEEUS CATILIUS 
SEVEEUS continued. 

161-180 A.D. continued. 
SILVER continued. 



39-6 



.... AVKELIV8 

Unlaureate head of Marcus 
Aurelius r. 



. . . cos Stand- 
ing figure 1., holding 
cornucopia in 1. hand, 
branch (?) in r. 



ANNIA FAUSTINA, 

WIFE OF MARCUS AURELIUS. 

COPPER. 



137-5 



149-9 



F AVSTINA. AVG 

Head of Faustina r ; her 
hair tied in a knot behind. 



FAVSTINA. AVG: VST A. Head 
of Faustina r ; hair dress- 
ed as before. 



EEG 

s.c. in the field. Female 
figure (Juno ?) standing 
1., holding ? in r. hand, 
spear in 1. 

HILARITAS. Female figure 
standing 1., holding cornu- 
copia in 1., hand ?, in r. ? 



MAKCUS JELIUS AUEELIUS COMMODUS 
ANTONINUS. 

180-193 A.D. 



GOLD. 



1* 



111-62 



L. 2EL. AVREL. COMM. AVG. 

p.p Laureate head 

of Commodiis bearded, r. 



AV. HI ii. Figure of 

Minerva (?) 1., holding 
spear in r. hand and a 
small figure in 1. 



38 



ROMAN" COINS. 



No. 



Wei -lit. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



357 



MARCUS ^ELTUS AURELIUS COMMODUS 
ANTONINUS continued. 

180-193 A.D. continued. 
GOLD continued. 



L. AEL. AVEEL. COMM. A VOL . . 

p. PEL. Laureate head of 
emperor r. 



' HERCYLI. ROMAXO. AVG. 

Commodus as Hercules, 
standing naked 1. having 
a club on his left arm, and 
a lion's skin pendent from 
the arm ; his right hand 
is resting on a trophy of 
arms, which stands at the 
right of the field. 



COrPER. 



157-6 



133-2 



207-6 



L. AVREL. COMMODT8. TR. P.V 

The youthful head of 
Commodus r. 



Inscription illegible. Lau- 
reate head of Commodus 



.... MODV3 . . . AVG. PIVS 

Laureate head of Commo- 
dus r. 



COMMODVS Laureate 

head of Commodus r. 



jovi. VICTO LRI] . . . s.c. in 
the field. Jupiter, bare 
to the waist, seated on a 
throne ; hasta pura in 1. 
hand, victoriola in r. 



Inscription illegible, s. c. in 
the field ; cos. v. p. p. in 
exergum. Jupiter seated, 
holding in 1. hand hasta 
pura, iu r.? 



|_PJ M. T.R. P. VIII 

vi. cos. mi s.c. in 

the field. Female figure 
standing facing, holding 
sword in 1. hand, ? in r. 

VOTA. DECEXX. SUSCE. [PTA]. 

.... s.c. in the field. 
The emperor robed as 
Pontifex, standing 1. and 
pouring out a libation on 
to a tripod altar, on which 
a fire is burning. 



ROMAN COINS. 



No. 


Weight. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






MAECCJS ^ELIUS AUBELIUS COMMODUS 

ANTONINUS row tot ued. 



145 



150 



42-7 



95-3 



180-193 A.D. continued. 
COPPER continued. 



COMM. ANT. p Laureate 

head of Commodus r. 



APOL. In the field cos. 
yi. s. c. Apollo standing 
with legs crossed; r. hand 
extended over his head ; 
1. arm resting against a 
column. 



BKUTTIA CEISPINA, 

WIFE OF COMMODUS. 



COPPER. 



CRISPINA. AVGTTSTA. Head 
of Crispina r. ; her hair 
braided and tied in a knot ; 
shoulders draped. 



CONCORDIA. In the field s.c. 
A female figure seated 1., 
with cornucopia on 1. arm ; 
r. arm extended and hold- 
ing patera. 



JULIA DOMNA, 
WIFE OF SEPTIMUS SEVERUS. 



SILVER. 



JVLIA. ATOVSTA. Head of 
empress r., her hair in 
broad bands at the sides ; 
shoulders draped. 



PIETAS. AVG. . . Female 
figure standing before an 
altar, on which she is 
pouring a libation from a 
patera in r. hand. 



FULVIA PLAUTILLA, 
WIFE OF CARACALLA. 



COPPER. 



PLAVTILLA. AVGTSTA. 

Head of Plautilla r., her 
hair braided ; shoulders 
draped. 



Undecipherable. 



" Her Latin coins are exceedingly rare. One among General 
Jamsay's coins was the only one I ever saw at sale, and a wretched 
.hing it was, not worth having. It was bought for Moss. Herpin 
>f Paris, whose cabinet was afterwards sold at Sotheby's, 3rd August 
.857, and the same coin again sold. Her best coins, though very 
are, are Greek." Hobler, Jtfcords of Human History, 1860, vol. ii, 
>. G54. 



40 



ROMAN COINS. 



No. 


Weight. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



124-2 



277-6 



198-9 



61-4 



MARCUS AUBELIUS ALEXANDER SEVERUS. 

222-235 A.D. 

COPPER. 



IMP. CMS. M. AYR SEV: ALEX- 
ANDER. AVG. Head of 
Severus r., with radiate 
crown . 



IMP. ALEXANDER. PIVS. AVG. 

Laureate head of Severus 
r. 



PROVIIXENTIA. DEORUM. Ill 

the field s. c. A robed 
female figure standing full 
front with legs crossed ; 
1. arm resting on a column, 
above which rises a cor- 
nucopia ; on the ground 
at her feet a globe, to 
which she points with r. 
hand. 

PROVIDENTIA. AVG. In the 

field s. c. Robed female 
figure, holding ears of 
corn in r. hand over a 
corn modius ; ? in 1. hand. 



MARCUS ANTONIUS GORDIANCJS PIUS. 
238-244 A.D. 



COPPER. 



IMP. GORDIANV9 

Laureate head 
dianus r. 



of 



AVG. 

Gor- 



P. M. TR. P. III. COS 

In exergum s. c. The em- 
peror in his robes, seated ; 
r. hand extended holds a 
globe ; in 1. hand a short 
staff. 



CAIUS MESSIUS QUINTUS TRAJANUS DECIUS. 
249-251 A.D. 



SILVER. 



IMP. M.Q. TRAJANUS. DECIUS. 

AVG. Head of Trajan 
with radiate crown r. 



PANNONT.'E. Two female 

figures robed and veiled, 

holding military stand- 
ards. 



ROMAN COINS. 



41 



No. Weight. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



46-4 



45-6 



49-8 



639 



LUCIUS CLAUDIUS DOMITIUS AUEELIANUS. 
270-275 A.D. 



COPPER. 



IMP. AYRELIAXYS. Head of 
Aurelianus, wearing radi- 
ate crown r. 



. . . DVX Figure 

seated on a shield, with a 
tree behind. 



MAECUS AUEELIUS PEOBUS. 
276-282 A.D. 



COPPER. 



IMP. PKOBTS. P. F. AVG. . . 

Head of Aurelius, wearing 
radiate crown 1. 



Illegible. 



FLAYIUS GALEEIUS VALEEIUS CONSTANTINUS. 
323-337 A.D. 



COPPER. 



CONSTANTINTS. AYG. Head 

of Constantino r., with 
crested helmet ; bust in 
armour. 



IMP. CONST ANTINVS. AVG. 

Laureate head of Constan- 
tine r. 1 



Inscription illegible. A 
warrior holding shield on 
his lap with X marked 



on it. 



SOLI. [INVICTO]. COMITI. In 

field s.c. ; in exergnm 
P.L.N. Apollo standing, 
looking 1. ; r. hand raised. 



1 This coin was struck in London. 



ROMAN CODsS. 



No. Weight. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



4* 



1* 

2* 



FLAVHJS GALEEIUS VALERIUS CONSTANTINUS 

continued. 

323-337 A.D. continued. 
COWER continued. 



32-4 



25-7 



CONST ANTINOPOHS. Female 
head 1., -wearing crested 
helmet. 



Inscription illegible, 
of Constantino r., 
denied. 



Head 
dia- 



T.B.P. in exergum. Winged 
Victory standing with 
spear in r. hand, 1. hand 
resting on a shield. 



GLORIA. EXERCITVS. Two 

soldiers with shield and 
spear on either side of aa 
ensign. 



FLAVIUS JULIUS CONSTANTIUS. 
350-361 A.D. 



COPPER, 



43-7 



D. N. CONSTANTTCTS. P. F. 

AUG. Head of Constantius 
r., diademed. 



FEL. TEMP. KEPARATIO. In 

exergum E. c. P. ( ? ). 
Armed soldier spearing a 
warrior who has fallen to 
the ground. 




Head of emperor r. 
Head of emperor r. 



A cross within a circle. 

Inscription vox. xv. MULT. 
xx. in four lines, within a 
laurel wreath, fastened 
above with a circular orna- 
ment. 



ROMAN COINS. 4t 

TABLE SHEWING SOME OF THE INSCRIPTIONS ON 
THE ROMAN COINS IN THE MADRAS MUSEUM. 



Inscription. 



Remarks. 



ANNONA . . 



APOLLO . . 



CONCORDIA 



eONCORDIA EXERCITVVM. 



CONSTANTINOPOLIS 



DE. BRITANN 



DE. GERMANIS . . 

TEL. TEMP. REPARATIO . 
FIDEI. PUBLICS 
GLORIA. EXERCITVS 

HILARITAS . . 

JOVI. VICTORI . . . 

JVPITER. CONSERVATOR . 



X.TJD[OS]. 



. FEC[IT] 



On a copper coin of Domitian, struck on 
the occasion of one of the periodical dis- 
tributions of coin. Type borrowed from 
the coinage of Nero. 

On a copper coin of Commodus. The figure 
of Apollo was probably copied from the 
Lycian Apollo. 

On a copper coin of Crispina. The in- 
scription and device point to the concord 
between Commodus and his wife. 

On a gold coin of Nerva, signifying the 
fidelity plighted to the emperor by the 
army. 

On a copper coin of Constantinus Magnus. 
The city of Byzantium was dedicated to, 
and named after, Constantino, 330 A.D. 

On one of the aurei of Claudius, struck in 
commemoration of the conquest of Great 
Britain. Another aureus (not in the 
museum collection) bears the legend OB. 

BRITANNOS. DEVICTOS. 

On a gold coin of Drusus, Senior. The 
inscription alludes to his victories over 
German tribes. 

On a copper coin of Constantius II.. 

On a copper coin of Domitian. 

On a copper coin of Constaninus Magnus. 

On a copper coin of Faustina Junior. 

On a copper coin of Commodus, struck 
after the victories over the Marcouianni 
and other German triedes. 

On a gold coin of Domitian ami a sign of 
the emperor's gratitude to Jupiter for 
success in his campaigns. 

On a gold coin of Domitian, referring to 
the ssecular games held at Rome. 



44 



ROMAN COINS. 



Inscription. 



Remarks. 



PACI. AVGVST 



PIETAS. ATJGVST . . 
PROVIDENTIA 
PROVIDENTIA. AVO. 



PROVIDENTIA. DEORUM . . 
SOLI. INVICTO. COMITI . . 

VICTORIA . . . . 

VIRTVS 

VOTA. DECENN. SVSCEPTA 



On a gold coin of Claudius. 

On a silver coin of Trajan Decius, refer- 
ring to the tribes of Pannonia, by which 
Trajan was saluted iiaperator after quell- 
ing an insurrection. The plural number 
is used, as there were two divisions, 
Pannonia prima and secunda. 

On a copper coin of Julia Domna. 
On a copper coin of Augustus. 

On a copper coin of Severus Alexander. 
The inscription and device (Ceres) refer 
to the forethought of Augustus in pro> 
viding a proper supply of corn to the 
citizens. 

On a copper coin of Severus Alexander. 

On a copper coin of Constantinus Magnus 
struck in London. 

On a copper coin of Antoninus Pius. 
On a copper coin of Marcus Aurelius. 

On a copper coin of Commodus in allusion 
to the performance of the decennial vows. 



ROMAN COINS. 



45 



SOME TYPES OF TITLES, ETC., ON THE EOMAN 
COINS IN THE MADRAS MUSEUM. 



Title, etc. 



Remarks. 



CENS. PEfl. . . . . . . 

DACICO. . . . . . . . . 

DIVVS. . . . . . . , , 

DIVI. F. . . . . . . . . 

I). N. 

EX. 8. C. . . . , 

OPTIMO. PRINCIPI. . . . . 
PATER PATRICE . . 
t. M. TR. POT. X. IMP. P. P. 



PONTIF. MAX. TR. P. VII. COS. VIII. 
1'. P. 



FRINC. JWENT 



ftACERD. COOPT. IN. OMN. CONL. 
SVP. NVM. 



6. C. 

S P. Q. R. P. P. OB. C. S. 



" Censor perpetuus." On a copper coin of 
Domitian. 

On a gold coin of Trajan, who assumed 
the title Dacicus after his successful 
campaign in Dacia. 

The title given to deified Emperors. 
" Divi Filius." 

" Dominus noster." On a copper coin of 
Constantius II. 

"Ex senatus consulto." 
On a gold coin of Trajan. 



" Pontifex Maximus, Tribunitia potestate 
X, Imperator, Pater Patriae." 

" Pontifex Maximus, Tribunitia potestate 
VII, Consul YIII, Pater Patriee." 

11 Princeps Juventutis." On gold coins of 
Drusus Senior and Claudius. The title 
"Prince of Youth" was, at an early 
period of the Empire, conferred on the 
Ceesar, or heir apparent to the throne. 

" Sacerdos cooptatus in omni conlegia 
supra numerum." On a gold coin of 
Drusus Senior. 

" Senatus consulto." 

"Senatus, Populusque Eomanus, Pater 
Patriee, ob cives servatos." On a gold 
coin of Claudius. 



46 ROMAN COINS. 



ADDENDUM. 

It is only since the final proof sheets have been revised that m y 
attention has been called to a notice by Captain E. H. C. Tufnell, 
in the Madras Journal of Literature and Science, on the small Roman 
coins found in the neighbourhood of Madura, which he attributes to a 
local mint. " What more natural," he says, " than that, as trade 
increased and eastern luxuries became more and more popular with the 
fair dames of Rome, small settlements of agents should be established 
to collect on the spot the produce of the country and convey it to the 
ships of their employers on their periodical visits to the ports of call. 
True no traces of those fine Roman buildings one sees and admires so 
much in Europe have been discovered, but could one expect to find, in 
a small community of mercantile agents settled for a short period in the 
heart of a foreign and uncivilized nation, any evidence of their existence 
that would last as many centuries as have rolled by since Roman merchants 
traded in the East, unless it be such coins as I describe, struck specially 
for the purposes of trade with a pauper population ? Looking then to the 
facts that all the coins of this series are well worn as though they had 
been in regular circulation, that they are of a type differing from those 
usual to the Imperial mints, that they are of so small a value as to 
be what one would expect to find in use when dealing with a people as 
poor as the early Hindus, that they are found almost exclusively in 
one locality, that they are constant];/ being found and not occurring in 
a glut at intermittent periods, surely all these arguments point to the 
possible, if not indeed the probable, truth of the theory that they were 
of local mintage." 

I have also recently had an opportunity of examining Mr. Tracy's 
coin collection, and have to add to the coins mentioned on page 2;i a 
coin of Anastasius, found in the Tirumangalum taluq, and bearing on 
the obverse the inscription D. N. ANASTASIVS. p. p. AVG. and a figure of 
the emperor wearing a tiara and oriental ornaments, and on the reverse, 
the inscription VICTORIA. AVG. G. G. s. and a winged figure of victory. 



II -BOW-PORTUGUESE COINS. 



INDOPORTUGUESE COINS. 



THE history of the coinage for the Portuguese possessions in India, 
from the foundation of the Goa mint in 1510 by Afonso Dalboquerque 
down to the present time, has been fully dealt with by Mr. J. Gei^on 
Da Cunha in his admirable " Contributions to the Study of Indo- 
Portuguese Numismatics, l " to which I would refer the reader who is 
interested in the subject, and to which I am indebted for the description 
of the coins. 

The present catalogue contains only a description of the coins, which 
are contained in the collection of the Madras Museum, and, to any one 
familiar with the history of the Indo -Portuguese coinage, it will be at 
once evident that the collection is very deficient in the coins struck 
prior to the latter half of the last century, and my efforts to improve 
it in this respect have proved fruitless ; but this is not to be wondered 
at, for Mr. Da Cunha says : " The subject of the Portuguese coinage 
in India is involved in much obscurity. Money was first minted at Goa 
in 1510 A.D., only 370 years ago ; but its history is more vague and 
undefined than that of either the Greek or Eoman coinage. The issue 
of coins by the viceroys, and often by the officers of the mint, without 
any intervention on the part of the viceroys or governors-general, was 
conducted in the most unsystematic, not to say capricious, fashion. The 
coins not seldom bore impresses, effigies, and legends which had no 
connection whatever with the reigning monarchs of the period when 
they were issued. Some of them were still minted long after a new 
currency with crowned or profile busts of kings was introduced. Again, 
some of these latter coins were struck years after the kings whose busts 
they bore had ceased to live. These whimsical variations both in types 
and in the standard of money are in themselves enough to cause no 
little confusion in the study of Indo-Portuguese numismatics. But 
these difficulties are increased tenfold by an absolute want of examples 
of the early periods of the Portuguese rule in India, their place being 
but inefficiently supplied by some written reports and private memoirs. 
The coins of the XVIth, XVIIth, and XVIIIth centuries are not only 
scarce, but even the written documents relating to them are rare or 
deficient." 



Bombay : Printed at the Education Society's Press, Byculla, 1880. 



ABBBEVIATIONS. 



An. = Gold. 

Ar. =. Silver. 
Tg. = Tutoiwg. 



Ae. Copper. 
13r. = Brass. 



PORTUGUESE COIXS. 



51 



CATALOGUE 



OF 



PORTUGUESE COINS. 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Eeverse. 



2-1 



1748 



1753 



1766 



1768 



Ar. 



Ar. 



Ar. 



Au. 



Ae. 



Bust of the king r. with 
the legend JOANXES. 
V.R.P. The date 1748 
in the exergum. 



KING D. JOAO V. 
1706-1750. 

RUPEE. 1748. 

The coat- of -arms of Por- 



tugal. 



Bust of the king r. with 
the legend 10 ZEPH. 
IR.P. The date 1753 
in the exergum. 



KING D. JOSE I. 

1750-1777. 

MEIO PAEDAO. 1753. 

The coat-of-arms of Por- 



tugal. 



MEIA TANG A. \lxx. 

Bust of the king r. The 
date 17 xx in the 
exergum. 



A crown with 30 (the 
value of the coin in reis) 
below. 

[Da Cunha, pi. vii, 7.] 



S. THOME. 1766. 



The coat of arms of 
Portugal. 



The cross of St. Thomas 
in the field, having at its 
upper angles 2 x, and 
the date 1766 in the 
lower ones. 



5 EEIS. 1768. 



The coat of arms of 
Portugal. 



Cross of the Order of 
Christ, having in the 
angles the date 1768. 

[Da Cuuba, pi. vn, 11.] 



52 



PORTUGUESE COINS. 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 








12 KEIS. 1769. 


6 


1769 


Tg- 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 


The numeral xii with the 








tugal between the 
letters G A. 


date 1769 below it, all 
within a wreath. 










[Da Cunha, pi. vn, 10.] 








6 KEIS. 1769. 


6 


1769 


Tg- 





The same except the nu- 
meral VI. 








4 KEIS. 1769. 


7 


1769 


Tg- 





The same except the nu- 
meral IV. 








TANGA. 1774. 


8 


1774 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal. 


Tonga in the field, sur- 
rounded by a laurel 
wreath, and having on 
the top astar. 










[Da Cunha, pi. vn, 8.] 








MEIO TANGA. 1774. 


9 


1774 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 


G. between two stars in the 








tugal. 


field, having 30 R. above, 
and the date 1774 below : 










all encircled by a laurel 










crown. 










[Da Cunha, pi. Til, 9.1 








20 REIS. 1774. 


10 


1774 


Ae. 


1! 


The same except 20 R. 


11 


1774 


Ae. 













10 REIS. 1774. 


12 


1774 


Ae. 


1 The same except 10 R. 








PARDAO. 1776. 


13 


1776 


Ar. 


Bust of the king r : 1776 
behind : PARDAO in 
front. 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal. 



PORTUGUESE COINS. 



53 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



14 



1777 



Ar. 



15 



1782 



Ar. 



16 



1786 



Ar. 



17 



1786 



Ar. 



18 



1792 



Au. 



19 



1793 



Ar. 



EUPEE. 1777. 



Bust of the king r : 1777 
behind : RVPIA in front. 



The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal. 

[Da Cunha, pi. vii, 4.] 



D. MAEIA I. 

1777-1799. 
MEIO PARDAO. 1782. 



The laureate busts of the 
Queen and her hus- 
band (D. Pedro III). 
r: GOA behind: 150 
E in front: 1782 in 
exergum. 



The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal. 



EUPEE. 1786. 



The laureate busts of the 
Queen and her hus- 
bund : GOA behind : 
RVPIA in front: 17 86 in 
exergum. 



The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal. 



PARDAO. 1786. 



The laureate busts of 
the Queen and her 
husband : GOA behind 
PARDAO in front : 1786 
in exergum. 



The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal. 



S. THOME. 1792. 



The coat-of-arms of Por- 
ttugal. 



The cross of St. Thorn? s, 
having at its upper 
angles 12 x, and at 
its lower angles the date 
1792. 



EUPEE. 1793. 



Bust of the Queen with 
widow's cap : GOA be- 
hind : RVPIA in front : 
1793 in exergum. 



The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal. 



54 



PORTUGUESE COINS. 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 








D. JOAO VI. 








EEGENTFROM 1799-1818. 








KING FROM 1818-1826. 








EUPEE. 1813. 


20 


1813 


Ar. 


Bust of the regent 
laureate r. 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal. 








PARDAO. 1818. 


21 


1818 


Ar. 


Bust of the King 
laureate r : GOA behind : 
PARDAO in front : 1818 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal. 








in exergum. 










PARDAO. 1820. 


22 


1820 


Ar. 


Bust of the King lau- 
reate r : GOA behind : 
PARDAO in front: 1820 
in exergum. 


The coat-of-arms of the 
United Kingdom (i.e., 
the arms of Portugal 
with the sphere of 
Brazil). 


D. PEDEO IV. 








1826-1828. 








TANOA. 


23 




Br. 


The coat-of-arms of 
Portugal. 


Within a laurel crown AP. 
(Asia Portuguese), and 
T. below it. 


24 




Br. 





[Da Cunha, pi. vin, 9.] 








MEIO TANGA. 


25 




Br. 


The coat-of-arms of 
Portugal. 


The same design with the 
addition of between the 
letters AP. and x. 


26 




Br. 


it 






PORTUGUESE COINS. 



55 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Keverse. 








KUPEE. 1828. 


27 




Ar. 


Bust of the king r : GOA. 
behind : RVPIA in 
front: 1828 in exer- 


Coat-of-arms of the United 
kingdom. 








gum. 




D. MAEIA II. 1 








1834-1853. 








EUPEE. 1833. 


28 


1833. 


Ar. 


Bust of Pedro iv. laure- 
ate r : GOA behind : 
BVPIA in front: 1833, 
in exergum. 


Coat-of-arms of the United 
kingdom. 








PAEDAO. 1833. 


29 


1833. 


Ar. 


Bust of Pedro iv. lau- 
reate r : GOA behind : 
PAKDAO in front ; 1833, 
in exergum. 


Coat-of arms of the United 
kingdom. 








PAKDAO. 1839. 


30 


1839. 


Ar. 


Bust of the queen 1. 
with the legend 

PAEDAO. DE. GOA. The 

date 1839 in the ex- 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal surrounded by a 
laurel wreath. 








ergum. 










KTJPEH. 1840. 


31 


1840. 


Ar. 


Bust of the queen 1. 
with the legend BVPIA. 
DE. GOA. The date 
1 840 in the exergum. 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal surrounded by a 
laurel wreath. 


1. "This distinguished prince (D. Pedro IV) abdicated the 
crown on behalf of his daughter, D. Maria, on the 2nd of May 
1826, which abdication was ratified on the 2nd of March 1828. 
He then declared himself regent of the kingdom on the 3rd of 
March 1832." 
J. Gerson Da. Cunha, Indo- Portuguese Numismatics, Bombay, 
1880. 



56 



PORTUGUESE COINS. 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 








TANGA. 1840. 


32 


1840. 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of 


60 R. inside a laurel crown. 








Portugal between two 
laurel branches: 1840 


[Da Cunha, pi. ix, I.] 








in exergum. 




33 


1840. 


Ae. 


" 











MEIA TANGA. 1840. 


34 


1840. 


Ae. 


M 


The same except 30 R. 


35 


1840. 


Ae. 














15 EEIS. 1843. 


36 


1843. 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of 


15 R D. within a beaded 








Portugal within two 
flowery embellish- 


circle. 








ments : 1843 in exer- 










gum. 










EUPEE. 1845. 


37 


1845 


Ar. 


Bust of the queen dia- 
demed 1. with the 


ETTPIA. encircled by a laurel 
wreath. 








legend MARIA n. POR- 










TUG.ET. ALGARB. REGINA: 










1845 in exergum. 












[DaCunha, pi. ix-2]. 








PARDA 


0. 1845. 


38 


1845 


Ar. 





PARDAO. encircled by a 
laurel wreath. 


















10 EEIS. 1845. 


39 


1845 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of 


10 R. 








Portugal : 1845 in exer- 










gum. 




40 


1845 


Ae. 


M 


if 








7 EEIS. 1845. 


41 


1845 


Ae. 


1 7J B. 



PORTUGUESE COINS. 



57 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 








6 EEIS. 1845. 




42 


1845 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of 6 E. 










Portugal: 1845 in exer- 












gum. 












4 EEIS. 1845. 




43 


1845 


Ae. 





4JE. 










PABDAO. 1846. 




44 


1846 


Ar. 


Bust of the queen dia- 
demed 1. with the le- 


PARDAO. encircled 
laurel wreath. 


by a 








gend MABIA II. PORTUG. 












ET ALGARB. BEGINA : 












1846 in exergum. 












MEIO PABDAO. 1846. 




45 


1846 


Ar. 




MEIO P. encircled 
laurel wreath. 


by a 








6 EEIS. 1848. 




46 


1848 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of 6 B. 










Portugal : 1848 in 












exergum. 












3 EEIS. 1848. 




47 


1848 


Ae. 





3B. 










ETTPEE. 1850, 




48 


1850 


Ar. 


Bust of the queen dia- 
demed 1. with the le- 
gend MABIA II. POETTTG. 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 
tugal : BUPIA DE GOA in 
exergum. 








ET ALGARB. BEGINA : 












1850 in exergum. 






49 


1850 


Ar. 


>' 













PARDAO. 1851. 




50 


1851 


Ar. 


The same, except the 
date 1851. 


The coat-of-arms of 
tugal : PARDAO DE 


Por- 

GOA 










in exergum. 





58 



PORTUGUESE COINS. 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 








100 EEIS. 1853. 




51 


1853 


Ar. 


Bust of the queen dia- 
demed 1. with the le- 


100 REIS. encircled by 
laurel wreath. 


a 








gend MARIA II. PORTUG. 












ET ALGARB. REGINA : 












1853 in exergum. 












D. PEDEO V. 










18531865. 










MEIO TANGA. 1861. 




52 


1854 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of 30 n. inside a laurel crown. 








Portugal within two 
laurel branches : 1854 












in exergum. 






53 


1854 


Ae. 


n 













EUPEE. 1856. 




54 


1856 


Ar. 


Head of the young king 
r. with the legend 


EUPIA. GOA. within 
laurel crown. 


a 








PETRU8 V. PORTUG. ET 












ALGARB. REX : 1856 in 


[Da Cunha, pi. ix. 


6.] 








exergum. 












EUPEE. 1857. 




55 


1857 


Ar. 


The same, except the 
date 1857. 


II 










PARDAO. 1857. 




56 


1857 


Ar. 





PARDAU. GOA. within laure 










crown. 










MEIO PARDAO. 1857. 




57 


1857 


Ar. 





MEIO. r. within a laurel 










crown. 





PORTUGUESE COINS. 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 








PARDAO. 1860. 




58 


1860 


Ar. 


Head of the young king 
r. with the legend 


PARDAU. GOA. within 
laurel crown. 


a 








PETRUS V. PORTUG. ET 












ALGARB. REX: 1860 in 












exergum. 












D. LUIZ 1. 










1861. 










PARDAO. 1868. 




59 


1868 


Ar. 


Bust of the young king 
1. with the legend 


PARDATJ. GOA. within 
laurel crown. 


a 








LUDOVICUS I. PORTUG. 












ET ALGARB. REX : 1868 












in exergum. 












RUPEE. 1869. 




60 


1869 


Ar. 


The same, except the 
date 1869 in exergum. 


EUPIA GOA. within a laurel 
crown. 

[Da Cunha, pi. ii, 8.] 








TANGA. 1871. 




61 


1871 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of Por- TANGA 60 REIS. within 


a 








tugal with the legend 

INDIA PORTUG 1871 


laurel crown. 

[Da Cunha, pi. ix, 


9.] 








in exergum. 






62 


1871 


Ae. 
















MEIO TANGA. 1871. 




63 


1871 


Ae. 


,, TANGA 30 REIS. within 


a 










laurel crown. 




64 


1871 


Ae. 
















QUARTER TANGA. 1871. 




65 


1871 


Ae. 


11 


I TANNA 15 REIS. within 
laurel crown. 


a 



60 



PORTUGUESE COINS. 



No. 


Date. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Eeverse. 


66 


1871 


Ae. 


The coat-of-arms of Por- 


j TANNA 15 REIS. within a 








tugal with the legend 

INDIA PORTUQ 1871 


laurel crown. 








in exergum. 










10 EEIS. 1871. 


67 


1871 


Ae. 




10 EEIS. within a laurel 










crown. 


68 


1871 


Ae. 





" 








5 EEIS. 1871. 


69 


1871 


Ae. 




5 EEIS. within a laurel 










crown. 








3 EEIS. 1871. 


70 


1871 


Ae. 


j j 


3 EEIS. within a laurel 










crown. 








EUPIA. 1881. 


71 


1881 


Ar. 


Bust of the king r. with 
the legend LUDOVICUS i. 

PORTUG. ET. ALGARB. 

REX : 1881 in exergum. 


The coat-of-arms of Portu- 
gal with laurel branches, 
and the legend INDIA 

PORTUGUEZA UMA RUPIA. 










[Da Cunha, pi. ix, 11.] 








MEIA EUPIA. 1881. 


72 


1881 


Ar. 


H 


The same except MEIA 










RUPIA. 


73 


1881 


Ar. 





" 








QUARTO DE EUPIA. 1881. 


74 


1881 


Ar. 




The same except QUARTO 










DE RUPIA. 








OOTAYO DE EUPIA. 1881. 


75 


1881 


Ar. 




The same except OCTAVO 










DE RUPIA. 



PORTUGUESE COINS. 



61 



No. 


Date. 


Metal 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 








QUARTO DE TANGA. 1881. 


76 


1881 


Ae. 


Bust of the king r. with 
the legend LUDOVICUS i. 


The royal crown with the 
legend INDIA PORTUGUEZA 








PORTUG. ET. ALGAKB. 


QUARTO DE TANGA. 








REX : 1881 in exergum. 


[Da Cunha, pi. is, 10.] 


77 


1881 


Ae. 














ECPIA. 1882. 


78 


1882 


Ar. 


Bust of the king 1. with 
the legend LUDOVICUS 

I. PORTUG. ET ALGARB. 

REX : 1882 in exerguru. 


The coat-of-arms of Portu- 
gal with laurel branches, 
and the legend INDIA 

PORTUGUEZA UMA RUPIA. 



HI-CEYLON COINS. 



CEYLON COINS, 



THE coinage of the island of Ceylon, both ancient and modern, has 
been already fully dealt with in the Numismata Orientalia l by Mr. 
T. W. Ehys Davids, who gives the following list of the kings of Ceylon 
from 1153-1296 A.D., those whose coins are extant being indicated 
by a star : 

1. Parakrama Bahu, 1153.* 

2. Vijaya Bahu 11, 1186, nephew of the last. 

3. Nissanka Malla,* 1187, a prince of Kalinga. 

4. Wikrama Balm 11, 1196, brother of Nissanka Malla. 

5. Codaganga,* 1196. Nephew of nissanka Nalla. 

6. Lilawati (queen),* 1197, widow of Parakrama Bahu. 

7. Sahasa Malla,* 1200, brother (?) of Nissanka Malla. 

8. Kalyanawati (queen), 1202, widow of Nissanka Malla. 

9. Dharmaoka,* 1208. 

10. Lilawati (restored), 1209. 

11. Pandi Parakrama Bahu 1211, Malabar usurper. 

12. Magha 1214, a Kalingan prince. 

13. Dambadeniya Wijaya Bahu, 1235, founder of a new dynasty. 

14. Dambadeniya Parakrama, 1259, son of the last king. 

15. Bosat Wijaya Bahu, 1294, son of the last king. 

16. Bhunaweka Bahu,* 1296, brother of the last king. 

Of the coins of Nissanka Malla and Codanga the Madras Museum 
contains no specimens, nor does it contain specimens of the copper half 
Mfixxfi of Pardkrama Bahu. The coinage of that monarch is, however, 
well represented in the museum collection by specimens of the gold Lan- 
keswara, copper lion coin, of which a specimen was recently found at 
Kilakarai on the coast of the Madura district, copper massa, and a 
copper coin similar in every respect to the gold Lankeswara, found at 
Kilakarai, and to the existence of which type no reference is made by 
Mr. Rhys Davids. I have also seen a specimen of the latter coin in the 
collection of the Rev. J. Tracy. 

Following the same course as that adopted by Mr. Rhys Davids, I 
have placed the gold Lakshtm, Tarnraki and Iraka coins with the Ceylon 
coins, though, as that authority says, " their classification is, at present, 
quite uncertain, and it is doubtful whether some of them belong to 
Ceylon at all." As regards the Iraka coin, which is named from the 
word Iraka (?) on the reverse, Mr. Rhys Davids suggests that the word 
may possibly be Haraka or Daraka. Of this coin, Captain Tufnell 
says 2 : " It bears the word ' Iraha,' a Prakrit form of the Sanskrit 
word ' Rakshasa ' (demon), above which is what may be the lotus, or 
possibly the conch shell of. Vishnu, and it is not improbable that the 
Cholas of the 12th and 13th centuries were followers of that deity." 
Further, Sir Walter Elliot says 3 : " Gold fanams with the Ceylon 

1 On the Ancient Coins and Measures of Ceylon. International Numismata Oriontalia, 
1877. 

2 Madras Journal of Literature and Science. 

3 Numismata Orientalia, 1885. Coins of Southern India, p. 133. 

9 



66 CEYLON COINS. 

type on the obverse, and an indistinct Nagari reverse, are occasionally 
met with. I received from Tanjore two gold pieces, weighing about 8 

grains The reverse has three old Nagari letters, which may be 

read iraka ? or daraka ?, throwing no light on their origin. ... I was 
inclined, when I first obtained them, to assign them to the Cholas ; 
as they are not infrequent in the island (Ceylon) their origin is but 
doubtful." 

I have omitted from the present catalogue, though the Madras 
museum contains specimens, the large and small setu bull coins, which 
are included by Mr. Rhys Davids in his work. These coins, which 
bear on the obverse the standing figure of a Raja with a weapon (?) 
in his right hand, and atrisula and sceptre in front, and on the reverse 
the sacred bull Naudi with the emblems of the sun and moon above, 
and the legend Setu below, doubtless belong to Southern India, and 
are attributed by Sir Walter Elliot 4 to the Zamindars of Ramuad, and 
Sivagtmga, the office of Setupati or guardian of Adam's bridge being 
one which, "though claiming 'a high antiquity, appears to have been 
conferred or restored on the Zamindar by Muttu Krishnappa Nayak, 
the father of Tirumala Nayak, of Madura." 5 

I have also omitted the copper coins of the Chola dynasty of the 
same type (called by Sir.W. Elliot the Ceylon type) as the Lankeswara 
coin of Parakrama Bahu, bearing on the obverse the standing figure, 
of a Raja, and on the reverse the same figure in a sitting posture 
with the legend Raja Raja. (PI. I, 1). These coins, Mr. Rhys Davids 
says, are the coins from which he believes the whole of the Cej-lon 
series to be derived, and they must have been introduced into Ceylon 
during the invasion of the island by the Cholas, prior to the time of 
Parakrama Bahu. 

The first settlement of Europeans, the Portuguese, in Ceylon 
took place in 1517, in which year Albergaria obtained permission from 
the King of Kotta, whose territory closely adjoined Colombo, to build 
a factory on the latter spot for purposes of trade. 

Concerning the arrival of the Portuguese off Colombo Davy says : 6 
" The natives, who first saw them, went to Cotta and informed the 
king that a new people was arrived, white and beautifully made, who 
wore iron coats and iron caps, and drank blood and ate stones ; who 
gave a gold coin for a fish or even a lime ; and who had a kind of 
instrument that could produce thunder and lightning ; and balls which, 
put into these instruments, would fly many miles, break ramparts, and 
destroy forts." 

" The appearance," says Tennent, 7 " of the Portuguese in Ceylon 
at this critical period, sav^d not only to check the career of the Moors, 
but to extinguish the independence of the native princes ; and looking 
to the facility with which the former had previously superseded the 
Malabars, and were fast acquiring an ascendancy over the Cinghalese 
chiefs, it is not an unreasonable conjecture that, but for this timely 
appearance of a Christian power in the island, Ceylon, instead of a 



4 Op. cit., p. 134. 

5 Sir W. Elliot, op. cit., p. 134. 

6 Account of the Interior of Ceylon and of its Inhabitants, with Travels in that Island, 
1821. 

7 Ceylon, vol. I, p. 633, 1860. 



PLATE I. 















CEYLON COINS. 



CEYLON COINS. 67 

possession of the British crown, might, at the present day, be a 
Mahometan kingdom, under the rule of some Arabian adventurer. " 
The occupation by the Portuguese was, however, the cause of constant 
dissension with the natives, and eventually an alliance was formed 
between the native princes and the Dutch to expel the Portuguese, the 
conditions of the treaty being made by Rajah Singha, who afterwards 
became sole king of the interior, on board one of the Dutch ships off 
Batticoloa. 

In his work on Ceylon 8 Bertolocci says : " Whatever was the 
currency of Ceylon during the government of the Portuguese, no vestige 
now remains of it ; and an investigation of that subject could throw no 
light upon its present condition." On this point Mr. Rhys Davids 
says : " No coins are known to have been struck by the Portuguese in 
or for Ceylon. Knox says that of three sorts of coin in use one 
was coined by the Portugals ; the king's arms on one side and the 
image of a friar on the other, and by the Chingulays called tangom 
massa. The value of one is nine-pence English ; poddi tangom, or the 
small tangom, is half as much ; but these were probably struck in 
Portugal, and not for use in Ceylon." 

The last stronghold of the Portuguese in Ceylon, Jaffna, was given 
up in 1658, and the Dutch occupation continued till 1796, in which 
year the island was ceded to the English. So far back as 1763 an 
embassy had been despatched by the Governor of Madras to propose a 
treaty to Kirti Sri, the king of Kandy, but no immediate result 
followed. Twenty years later Trincomallee was occupied by a British 
force under Sir Hector Munro, but the fort was surprised by a French 
fleet, and the British garrison transported to Madras. In 1795 an 
expedition, commanded by Colonel Stuart, landed at Trincomallee, which 
capitulated in three weeks. Later in the same year Calpentyn was 
occupied, and early in 1796 Negombo and Colombo were taken posses- 
sion of, and a convention was signed, by which Point de Galle, Matura, 
and the remaining fortified places were ceded to Great Britain. 

During the Dutch occupation large numbers of the coins of the 
Dutch East India Company, many bearing the monogram, v.o.c. 
found their way to the island, but these I shall deal with on a future 
occasion. As regards the IJrropean coins, which were struck specially 
for Ceylon, I cannot do better than quote in detail the observations 
of Mr. Rhys Davids, who says : " The Dutch struck only a very few 
silver rix dollars, which are very rare, if not entirely extinct, and 
which I have never seen. A thick copper Stniver having on the obverse 
the monogram, v.o.c., the o and c written over the sides of the v, 
and in the open part of the v the letter c, perhaps for Colombo or 
Ceylon, is occasionally met with. On the reverse is the legend 1 stuiver, 
the mimeral 1 being above the word stuiver (which occupies the centre 
of the field coin), and having four dots on each side of it. Below is the 
date, the dates in my collection being 1784, 1785,1786, 1789, 1791, 
1793, 1795. It is possible, however, that this c is only a mint mark, 
and that these coins, whose rough execution shows them to have been 
struck in the Dutch East Indies (the monogram, v.o.c., stands for the 
initial letters of Vereinigte Ostindische Compagnie, i.e. Limited East 



8 View of the Agricultural, Commercial, and Financial Interests of Ceylon. 1817. 

10 



68 CEYLON COINS. 

India Company) were not, after all, struck in Ceylon. There are similar 
coins with two apparently Tamil letters below the words stuiver, and 
with T and G in the place of c. If these letters stand for Trinkomalei 
and Gralle, then one would expect Cinghalese letters, but they look like 
the Tamil letters i. L. for Ilankei, the Tamil form of Lanka, that is, 
Ceylon. 

" The English have issued four types of coins besides the present 
one. Type 1, which is thick and coarsely executed, has on the obverse 
an elephant, below which is the date ; on the reverse the words CEYLON 
GOVERNMENT round a circle, within which is the value of the coin. Of 
this type, there are three thick silver pieces (very rare) of the value 
of 96, 48, and 24 stuivers (4 of which = 1 fanam), weighing 280, 140, 
and 70 grains, respectively. The 48 stuiver piece is equal to the rix 
dollar, and the three thick copper pieces of this type are, respectively, 
worth -jV, 2T, and $, of its value. These copper coins weigh 50 
stuivers to the pound, and are now difficult to procure. 

" Of this type, specimens of the following years, without letters, are 
in my collection, and those of the years marked (B.M.), are added 
from the British museum collection : 

Silver, 96 Stuivers, 1808 (B.M.), 1809(B.M). 

,, 48 1803 (B.M.), 1804 (B.M.), 1808, 1809 (B.M.). 
24 1803, 1804 (B.M.), 1808 (B.M.) 
Copper, 4 ,, 1803 (B.M.), 1804, 1805 (B.M.), 1811 (B.M.). 

1814, 1815. 
2 ,, 1801, 1802, 1803, 1805 (B.M.), 1811, 1812 

(B.M.), 1813 (B.M.), 1814, 1815, 1816.' 

1 ,, 1801, 1802, 1803 (B.M.), 1809, 1811 (B.M.), 

1812, 1813, 1814, 1815, 1817. 

" Of Type 2 one issue was made, in copper, in 1802, of stuivers, half 
stuivers, and quarter stuivers ; they are thin, like modern coins, and 
well executed, weighing 36 stuivers to 1 lb., obverse and reverse as on 
the last type. The British museum has specimens of this type, dated 
1804, but it is not certain whether they were ever in circulation. 

" Of type 3 also one issue was made, in 1815, of two-stuiver, stuiver, 
and half stuiver pieces in copper and one issue of rix dollars in silver 
in 1821. Obverse of the copper, head of George in to right, with 
legend GEORGIUS. in. D.G. BRITANNIARUM. REX.: of the silver, head of 
Geo. iv. to left, with legend GEORGIUS. iv. D.G. BRITANNIARUM. REX. 
F.D. Reverse of the copper, an elephant to left ; above the legend, 
Ceylon tico stivers, one stiver, or one-half stiver, with the date below. 
The silver the same, but the legend is Ceylon one rix dollar, and round 
the elephant a wreath of flowers. The coins of this type are still 
occasionally met with in the bazars, but the half stuiver is very difficult 
to get. Both this and the last issue were struck in England. 

" Lastly, fanam pieces of two kinds were struck in silver. The first, 
which is very rare, and was issued about 1820, has simply round a 
small circle with a dot in its centre FANAM on one side and TOKEN on 
the other of a silver coin less than f of an inch in diameter, and without 
date. The work-people, who built Baddegama church, the oldest 
English church in Ceylon, are said to have been paid in this coin, 
which is roughly executed. The other, which is half an inch in 
diameter, has on the obverse the bust of Victoria surrounded by the 



CEYLON COINS. 69 

legend VICTORIA. D.G. BEITANNIAR. REGINA. F.D. and on the reverse 
the figures 1| and the date 1842, surmounted by a crown and surrounded 
by a wreath. This little coin, seldom met with in Ceylon, is beauti- 
fully executed, and was struck in England ; whilst the fanam tokens 
were struck in Ceylon. 

" There is, in the British Museum, one silver specimen of another 
type, but whether this is a proof of an unpublished coin, or a specimen 
of a coin in actual circulation, I have been unable to ascertain. It 
has on the obverse the words TWO EIX DOLLARS in a square tablet 
surmounted by a crown ; above it, Ceylon ; below it on a scroll, DIEU 
ET MON DROIT, and below that again the word CURRENCY; on the reverse 
an elephant to the left, and below it the date 1812." 

As regards the little coin mentioned above, with the figures 1 1 and " 
the date 1842, Captain Tufnell says : 9 " The description so exactly 
corresponds with that of the l|r/. of the ' Maunday ' money, that I 
cannot but think that the specimens alluded to belong to that series, or 
to an issue of this silver piece, still to a certain extent in circulation in 
Malta as a fraction of od, which sum appears to be the most usual 
charge for all small commodities and services in Valetta." 

Of the European coins struck in Ceylon, only a few typical speci- 
mens are here catalogued, more extensive notice being reserved for the 
future. 



9 Madras Journ. Lit. and Science, 1888, p. 187. 



70 



( KYI.ON ( OINS. 



CATALOGUE 



OF 



CEYLON COINS. 



No. Metal. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



PAEAKEAMA BAHU. 

1153-1186 A.D. 
LANKESWARA GOLD COIN. 



Au. 



An. 



Ae. 



Ae. 



Standing figure r ; dhoti in 
folds on each side of, and 
between the legs ; conical 
hat on head ; in the r. 
hand a weapon, and to 1. 
of this a sceptre (?) ; in 1. 
hand a lotus flower. The 
figure stands on a snake 
with a small hole in the 
centre. To 1. below 1. 
arm are five dots, and a 
lotus flower. 



The same figure as on the 
obverse seated, and hold- 
ing lotus flower in 1 hand ; 
a grating below 1 leg. on 
the 1. side of the figure 
inscription. 

Sri. Lankesicara. 

[PL I, 2, 3.] 



LAXKESWARA COPPER COIN. 



Cor PER MAPS A. 



Standing figure holding 
weapon in r. hand ; below 
to r. lotus flower and five 
dots. 



Seated 
tion. 



figure and inscrip- 



Sri. Paralram-a Balm. 
[Pi. I. 



CEYLON COINS. 



71 



No. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






COPPER LION COIN. 


6 


Ae. 


Standing figure holding 
weapon in r. hand, and 
lotus flower in 1. A lion 
sitting r. with mouth open, 
and exposing the teeth in 
the upper jaw. 


Seated figure and inscrip- 
tion. 
Sri. Pardkrama Baku. 

[PI. I, 6.1 


7 


Ae. 


>j 





VIJAYA BAHU. 






1186-1187 A.D. 


8 
9 


Ae. 

Ae. 


Standing figure holding 
weapon in r. hand below 
to r lotus flo\s er and dots. 

>> 


Seated figure and inscrip- 
tion. 
Sri. Vijaya Baku. 
[PI. I, 6.] 




LILAVATI. 






1197-1200 A.D. 


10 


Ae. 





Seated figure and inscrip- 
tion. 
Sri. Raja Llldvati. 
[Pi. I, 7.] 






SAHASA MALLA. 






1200-1202 A.D. 


11 


Ae. 


Standing figure holding 
weapon in r. below to, r ; 
and a lotus flower and 
dots. 


Seated figure, and inscrip- 
tion. 
Sri. Mat. Sdhasa. Malla. 

[PI. I, 8.] 


12 


Ae. 


i 









DHAKMASOKA. 






1208-1209 A.D. 


13 


Ae. 


Standing figure holding 
weapon in r. hand ; below 
to r lotus flower and dots. 


Seated figure and inscrip- 
tion. 
Sri. Dhannmdsoka Deva. 

[PI. I, 9.] 



72 



CEYLON COINS. 



No. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






BHUVANAIKA BAHU. 






1296 A.D. 


14 


Ae. 


Standing figure holding 
weapon in r. hand ; below 
to r. lotus flower and dots. 


Seated figure and inscrip- 
tion. 
Sri Bhuvanaika Baku. 








[PI. I, 10.] 






GOLD LAKSHMI COIN. 


15 


Au. 


Standing figure, with or- 
nament above r. arm, and 
trident below 1. arm. 


Inscription Lakshmk with 
symbol of lotus (?) above. 
[Pi. 1, 11.] 






GOLD TAMRAKI COIN. 


15-1 


Au. 





Inscription Tamraki with 
symbol of lotus (?) above. 






GOLD IRAKA COIN. 


16 


Au. 


Standing figure with weapon 
in r. hand, and lotus 
flower in 1 ; trident below 
1. arm. 


Inscription Iraka (?) with 
symbol of lotus flower (?) 
and a stroke and dot 
above. 








[PI. I, 12.J 


17 


Au. 








18 


Au. 





The same inscription, with 
a circle and two dots 
above. 

[PI. I, 18. J 






SILVER : HOOK MONEY.* 


19 


Ar. 


A bar of silver bent into a hook, with a mark stamped 
upon it. 






SILVER : LANKA MONEY. 


20 


Ar. 


A bar of silver bent so as to be slipped into the belt, with 
an Arabic inscription on both sides. 


1 For note on this money see Ehys Davids' Numismat. Orient., 
1877, pp. 33-35. 



CEYLON COINS. 



73 



No. 


Metal. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






EUEOPEAN COINAGE. 






DUTCH 1790. 


21 


Ae. 


Monogram, v.o.c. with the 
letter T. in open part of 
the v. 


I ST. 1790. 






DUTCH 1795. 


22 


Ae. 


Monogram v.o.c., with the 
letter c. in open part of 
the v. 


I STUIVER, 1795. 






BRITISH. 


23 


Ae. 


Inscription CEYLON GOVERN- 
MENT round a circle, within 
which is the number 12. 


Elephant 1. with date 1801 
below. 


24 


Ae. 


Inscription CEYLON GOVERN- 
MENT round a circle, within 


Elephant 1. with date 1802 
below. 






which is the number 48. 




25 


Ae. 








26 


Ae. 


but 96. 





27 


Ae. 


but 192. 





28 


Ar. 


Inscription CEYLON GOVERN- 
MENT round a circle, within 
which is the value of the 


Elephant 1. with date 1805 
below. 






coin 24 ST. 




29 


Ar. 


,, but 48 ST. 


but date 1808. 


30 


Ar. 


Same as No. 28. 


,, but date 1809. 


31 


Ae. 


Inscription CEYLON GOVERN- 
MENT round a circle, within 
which is the number 24. 


Elephant 1. with date 1815 
below. 


32 


Ae. 


,, 





33 


Ae. 


Bust of king George m. r. 
inscription GEORGIUS in. 
D. G. BRITANNIARUM REX. 


Elephant 1. with inscription 
CEYLON TWO STIVERS above, 
and date 1815 below. 


34 


Ae. 





,, 


35 


Ae. 





,, but ONE STIVER. 


36 


Ae. 





,, but HALF STIVER. 



74 



CKY1.0N COINS. 



No. 



Metal. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



37 

38 

39 



Ar. 
Ar. 

Ar. 



EUROPEAN COINAGE 

SILVER FANAM TOKEN. 

FANAM round a circle with TOKEN round a circle with a 
a dot in centre. dot in centre. 



SILVER Eix DOLLAR. 



40 



Ae. 



Bust of king George iv. 1. 
inscription GEORGIUS iv 

D. G. BRITANNIAR. REX. 



Bust of queen Victoria 1. 
inscription VICTORIA QUEEN 
in ornamental border. 



41 
42 



Ae. 
Ae. 



43 
44 



Ae. 
Ae. 



45 



Ae. 



Elephant 1. with inscription 
CEYLON ONE RIX DOLLAR 
above, floral wreath and 
date 1821 below. 



Inscription CEYLON FIVE 
CENTS 1870 round a circle, 
within which is a palm 
tree, and the value of the 
coin 5 cents in Tamil 
and Cinghalese. 



Inscription CEYLON ONE 
CENT 1870 round a circle, 
within which is a palm 
tree, and the value of the 
coin 1 cent in Tamil 
and Cinghalese. 



Inscription CEYLON HALF 
CENT 1870 round a circle, 
within which is a palm 
tree, and the value of the 
coin cent in Tamil 
and Cinghalese. 

Inscription CEYLON QUARTER 
CENT 1870 round a circle, 
within which is a palm 
tree, and the value of the 
coin cent in Tamil 
and Cinghalese. 



GOVERNMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM, 
MADRAS. 



COINS. 



CATALOGUE No. 3. 



SULTANS OF DEHLl. 



BY 

EDGAR THURSTON, 

SUPERINTENDENT, MADRAS GOVERNMENT MUSEUM. 



MADRAS: 
FEINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS. 

[PRICE, 3 *nas.~\ 1889. 



PKEFACE. 



IN the present Catalogue of Coins of the Sultans of Dehli, 
which are contained in the collection of the Madras Museum, 
the references allude to (I) Thomas' Chronicles of the Pathan 
Kings of Dehli ; (II) the British Museum Catalogue of the 
Coins of the Sultans of Dehli, 1884 ; (III) the articles, with 
two exceptions by Mr. C. J. Rodgers, published in the 
Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 
and in the Indian Antiquary. 

I shall be glad to receive specimens of coins which are 
wanting in the collection, either as donations, by purchase, 
or exchange. 

EDGAR THURSTON, 

GOVERNMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM, Superintendent. 

MADRAS, 
August 1889. 



COINS OF THE SULTANS OF DEHLI. 



No. 


Thomas. 


British Museum. 


Rodgers. 




MUHAMMAD IBN SAM. 




A.H. 589-602. 


1 


No. 3. 


No. 1. 




2-4 


6. 


10-11. 




5-6 


8. 






7-8 


9. 






9-10 


10. 


12-16. 




11 


,, 11. 


17-19. 




12 


13. 






13-14 






j.A.s.B. 1880, No. 6, p. 81. 


15-16 






7, p. 82. 


17 






Ar. antiq. No. 28, p. 433. 




ISSUES OF TAJ-AD-DIN YILDIZ. 


18 


No. 20 (?) 


No. 7 (?) 




19-20 


24. 


,, 24-26. 




21 


P. 27. Foot-note. 
Binomial coin. 






22 






J.A.S.B. 1880, No. 15, p. 209. 


23 






,, 16, p. 


24 






17, p. 210. 


25 






18, P- 




KANAUJ ISSUES. 


26-27 


No. 16, 






28 






Ar. antiq. No. 2, p. 435. 


29 






>> 3, p. ,, 


30 


19. 







No. 


Thomas. 


British Museum. 


Eodgers. 




SHAMS-AD-DIN ALTAMSH. 




A.H. 607-633. 


31 






J.A.S.B. 1880, No. 7, p. 209. 


32 


No. XXIX VAR. 






33-34 


i, 42. 


No. 40-41. 




35-36 


48. 


,, 48-50. 




37 


50. 


- 




38 


52. 






39 


Do. but half size. 






40-41 


No. 53. 


i, 54. 




42 


55. 


58. 




43-44 


57. 






45 


58. 






46 








47-48 




55. 


J.A.S.B. 1880, No. 8, p. 209. 




RUKN-AD-DIN FIR(5z SHAH I. 




A.H. 633-634. 


49 


No. 89. 


No. 61. 






BIZtYAH. 




A.H. 634-637. 


50 


No. 91. 


No. 63-64. 




51-52 






J.A.S.B. 1880, No. 8, p. 82. 


53 






1881, No. 4, p. 208. 




MU'IZZ AD-DIN BAHRAM SHAH. 




A. H. 637-639. 


54 


No. 92. 


No. 67. 




55 


94. 


70-72. 




56 


,, 95. 







No. Thomas. British Museum. 


Rodgers. 




'ALA-AD-DlN MAStJD SHAH. 




A.H. 639-644. 


57-58 


No. 97. 


No. 73. 


- 


59-60 


99. 


78-80. 




61 


100. 






62 


101. 








NASiK-AD-DIN MAHMUD SH.^H I. 




A.H. 644-664. 


63-67 


No. 106. 


No. 86-95. 




68 






J.A.S.B. 1886, No. 11, p. 188. 


69 






15, p. 189. 


70-71 


107. 


96-98. 




72-73 


108. 








GHIYAS-AD-DiN BALBAN. 




A.H. 664-686. 


74 


No. 111. 


compare No. 100. 




75-77 


112. 


103-104. 




78-79 


H3. 


,, 115-118. 




80-81 


114. 


119-120. 




82 


115. 


121-122. 






MU'IZZ-AD-DIN KAI-KUBAD. 




A.H. 686-689. 


83 




No. 123. 




84 


No. 116. 


126-127. 




85-86 


117. 


129-130. 




87-88 


118. 


131-133. 





No. 


Thomas. 


Brii.sh Museum. 


Rodgere. 




JALAL- AD-DIN FIROZ II. 




A.H. 689-695. 


89-90 


No. 121. 


No. 139-145. 




91-93 


122. 


146-143. 




94-95 


123. 


149-151. 




96-97 


124. 


152-152<z. 






RUKN-AD-DIN IBRAHIM SHAH I. 




A.H. 695. 


98-99 


No. 127. 


No. 154-155. 




'ALA-AD-DlN MUHAMMAD SHAH I. 




A.H. 695-715. 


100 




No. 157. 




101-104 


No. 130. 


158. 




105-112 


132. 


compare No. 164-181. 


- 


113 


134. 






114 


135. 


196-201. 




115-116 


136. 


182-191. 




117-118 


,i 137. 


202-203. 






KUTB-AD-DlN MUBARAK SHAH I, 




A.H. 716-720. 


119 


No. 142. 


No. 206-207. 




120 


145. 






121 






J.A.S.B. 1880, No. 7, p. 210. 


122-123 


147. 


214. 




124-125 


148. 


216. 




126 


149. 


217-218. 





127 


150. 


221-222. 




128 


151. 


225-227. 




129 


152. 


230-232. 




130-131 


154. 


233-234. 




132-133 






J.A.8.B. 1880, No. 14, p. 211. 


134 






1875, No. 3, p. 126. 








(Delmerick). 
) 



Thomas. 



British Museum. 



fiodgers. 



NASIR-AD-DIN KHUSRU SHAH. 

A.H. 720. 



No. 156. 



No. 235. 
236. 



J.A.S.B. 1886, No. 18, p. 189. 



No. 158. 
159. 
161. 
163. 
164. 
, 165. 



GHIYA8-AD-DIN TAGHLAK SHAH I. 
A.H. 720-725. 



No. 238. 
241- 

245-247. 

,, 249-254. 
258-259. 



P.A.S.B. 1879, No. 9, p. 179. 



No. 171. 
compare ,, 172. 

n 

174. 

173. 

,, 175-175a. 

176. 

H7. 

compare ,, 179. 



MUHAMMAD II-IBN TAGHLAK, 

A.H. 725-752. 

No. 260-262. 



264. 



compare ,, 2fi5. 
27.3. 



10 



No. 


Thomas. 


British Museum. 


Rodgpra. 



MUHAMMAD II-IBN 

A.H. 725-752 



No. 184. 


No. 274. 




compare No. 188. 






189. 


280. 




190. 


278-279. 




193. 


288. 




194. 


295-296. 




FORCED CUERENCY. 


No. 195. 


No. 300-303. 






305 a. 








J.A.S.B. 1883, No. 34, p. 62 




305 d. 




ji 






196. 


306, 




197. 


309-310. 




198. 


311-312. 




200. 


316. 




., 202. 


319. 




203. 


320-321. 




,, 205. 


323. 




208. 


325-326. 





COINS STRUCK IN THE NAME OF THE 'ABBASI 
KHALIFAHS OF EGYPT. 



No. 212. 
213. 

, 218. 



No. 328. 
,, 336-338. 



11 



No. 



Thomas. 



British Museum. 



Rodders. 



197 



198 
199 

200-202 

203-204 

205-206 

207 

208-210 
211 
212 

213-214 
215 
216 



217 

218 



MAHMUD SHAH. 
IBN MUHAMMAD IBN TAGHLAK. 

(Pretender.) 



A.H. 752. 



No. 342. 



FIR(5Z SHAH III. 
A.H. 752-790. 



No. 223. 
224. 
225. 
226. 
228. 

compare ,, 
229. 
230. 
231. 
233. 
235. 
236. 



No. 343. 

compare ,, 345-347. 

344. 

349. 

compare ,, ,, 

,, 369-370. 

compare ,, 361. 

374-378. 

, 366-368. 



No. 238. 
239. 



POSTHUMOUS 



No. 364-365. 
379. 



WITH FATH KHAN. 



219 I No. 241. 

220 242. 
221-222 compare ,, 

223 244. 



No. 384-385. 
compare 



No. 


Thomas. 


British Museum. 


Rodgera. 



No. 245. 

,, 247. 

248. 

249. 



No. 254. 



No. 255. 
260. 



No. 262. 

265. 

267. 

268. 



No. 271. 



WITH ZAFAE. 



No. 387. 
389-390. 
391-392. 



GHIYAS-AD-DIN TAGHLAK SHAH II. 

A.H. 790-791. 

No. 396-397. 

ABU-BAKE SHAH. 

A.H. 791-792. 



No. 399-400. 
406-407. 



MUHAMMAD SHAH III-IBN 
A.H. 792-798. 



No. 411-412. 
418. 



POSTHUMOUS. 



SIKANDAE SHAH I. 

A.H. 795. 



No. 274. 



No. 427-128. 



13 



No. 


Thomas. 


British Museum. 


Rodgers. 



No. 276. 

278. 
280. 



No. 283. 



No. 288. 
289. 



No. 293. 
295. 



MAHMUD SHAH II. 
A.H. 795-815. 

No. 431. 
436-441. 

NASRAT SHAH. 

(Interregnum). 
A.H. 797. ff. 



MUBARAK SHAH II. 
A.H. 824-837. 



No. 446. 
448. 



MUHAMMAD SB AH IV-IBN FARID. 
A.H. 837-847. 



No. 456-458. 
460-464. 



'ALIM SHAH. 

A.H. 847-855. 



No. 301. 



14 



No. 


Thomas. 


British Museum. 


Rodgers. 



No. 311. 

312. 

313. 

315. 



No. 316. 
, 317. 



BUHLOL LODI. 
A.n. 855-894. 



No. 473. 
491-492. 
483. 
479. 



SIKANDAR II-L6DL 

A.H. 894-923. 
No. 495. 
516-517. 

IBRAHIM LdDI. 
A.H. 923-937. 



268 


No. 330. 


No. 518. 








SHER SHAH. 




A.H. 946-952. 


269 






J.A.S.B. 1880, pi. xvni a, 1. 


270 






Ind. Ant., 1 1888, No. 1, p. 65. 


271 






it n ii n 2, p. 65. 


272 






tt 3, p. 66. 


273 






n tt a ,, 4, p. 66. 


274 






M n it a 5, p. 66. 


275 






a it n 6, p. 66. 


276 






it t> n n 7, p. 66. 


277 






a i> n 8, p. 66. 


278 






it > 9> P- 66. 


279 






it a M 10 P- 66. 


280 






M 11, p. 66. 


281 






,, ,, 12, p. 66. 


282 






n a > 11 13, p. 66. 


283 






>> ,, ,, ,, 14, p. 66. 




1 The Rupees of the Suri Dynasty. 



15 



Thomas. 



British Museum. 



Rodgers. 



Foot-note, p. 399. 

No. 354. 

355. 

357. 

(Narnol) 358. 



(Alwar) 
(Sambhol),, 



No. 363 



SHER SHAH. continued. 

A.H. 946-952 continued. 

Ind. Ant., 1888, No. 16, p. 67. 
17, p. 67. 
M ,i ,, 18, p. 67 



No. 366. 



Unedited. 



No. 551. 
547. 

compare ,, 560-564. 
569. 

570-572. 
5680. 



ISLAM SHAH. 
A.H. 952-960. 

Ind. Ant., 1888, No. 19, p. 67. 

20, p. 67. 

21, p 67. 

22, p. 67. 

,, 23, p.[67. 

24, p. 67. 

25, p. 67. 

M 26, p 67. 

,, 27, p. 67. 

28, p. 67. 

,, 29. p. 67. 
No. 621-622. 

624. 

MUHAMMAD 'ADIL SHAH. 
A.H. 960-964. 

Ind. Ant., 1888, No. 30. p. 67. 
No. 634-635. 



GOVERNMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM, 
MADRAS. 



HISTORY OF THE COINAGE OF THE ^ 
TERRITORIES OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY 
IN THE INDIAN PENINSULA : 



AND 



CATALOGUE OF THE COINS IN 
THE MADRAS MUSEUM. 

With Twenty Plates. 



BY 



EDGAR THURSTON, 

SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT CENTRAL MUSEUM, MADRAS. 



MADRAS: 
PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS. 



[PKICE, Rs. 2-8-0.] 1890. 



PREFACE. 



IN the preparation of the present work, which gives a general sketch of 
the early development of the East India Company and of its coinage, 
to which I have added a catalogue of those coins which are contained 
in the collection of the Madras Museum, I have received great assist- 
ance from Bruee's " Annals of the Honorable East India Company," 
Neumann's " Beschreibung der bekanntester kupfermunzen," and Weyl's 
" Verzeichniss von Miinzen und Denkmiinzen der Jules Fonrobert- 
schen sammlung." 

To the British Museum I am greatly indebted for casts of many 
coins which are not in the Madras Museum collection. 

When recently in Europe I was able to procure from the coin-dealers 
many coins which are either rare, or, so far as I know, not to be obtained 
at all, in India at the present day. I then, too, became aware, for the 
first time, that Atkins' " Coins and Tokens of the Possessions and 
Colonies of the British Empire" was in the press, and to this book, 
which has since been issued, I acknowledge my indebtedness. 

No attempt has been made by me to give a complete record of the 
various proof and pattern pieces, though some are referred to and 
described. 

In 1887 I was engaged in going carefully over the records of the 
Madras Mint, from which such information was extracted as I thought 
to be of value and interest. The opportunity of examining, in like 
manner, the records of the other Indian mints did not offer itself ; but 
it is to be hoped that this somewhat ungrateful task will eventually 
be earned out by numismatists in the other Presidencies. 

The plates were lithographed by Kell and Son from drawings made 
by a Native draftsman. The coins figured on plates i to xvi are in 
the Madras Museum collection, which is wanting in those figured on 
plates xvii to xx. 

EDOAK TIIUESTON. 
January 1890. 



L HISTORY OF THE COINAGE. 



HISTOEY OF THE COINAGE OF THE 

TEEEITOEIES OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY 

IN THE INDIAN PENINSULA : 



AND 



CATALOGUE OF THE COINS IN THE 
MADRAS MUSEUM. 



IN the year 1599 an Association of Merchant Adventurers was 1599 
formed to embark what Bruce says, 1 " was then considered a 
large stock on a voyage to the East Indies. The contract of 
these adventurers is valuable, from its being the first authentic 
deed which occurs in the annals of an East India trade ; it is 
entitled ' The names of suche p'sons as have written with 
their owne handes, to venter in the p'tended voiage to the Easte- 
Indias (the which it maie please the Lorde to prosper) and the 
somes that they will adventure ; the xxij September 1599.' The 
fund subscribed amounted to 30,133 6s. 8d., which was divided 
into one hundred and one shares or adventures, the subscriptions 
of individuals varying from 100 to 3,000." 

At "an assemblie of the committiesor y e directors of the viage 
the XXV th - of Septembr 1599 " it was resolved that a petition shal 
be exhibited to y e 14^ . of her ma e s most honorable privy counsell 
in the name of the adventurer shewing ther honors that divers 
merchaunts induced by the successe of the viage pformed by the 
Duche nation [who] and beinge informed that the duchemen 
prepare for a newe viage and to that ende have bought divers 
ships heere in England, were stirred vp wth noe lesse affection 
to advaunce the trade of ther native cuntrey then the duche 
merchaunts were to benefite ther comon wealthe, and vppon 
that affection have resolved to make a viage to the Est Indias yf 
her male wil be pleased to add to ther entention the better to 
pforme the enterprise, these severall petitions or Requests follow- 
ing, viz. : 

" To graunt to the adventures a priviledge in succession and to 
incorporate them in a companie for that the trade of the Indias 
being so farre remote from hence cannot be traded but in a joint 
and a vynted stock. 

" That the shipping of the adventurers being prepared for ther 
viages be not staied vppon anie pretence of [anie] service for yt 
the stay of one inoneth loseth the oportunetie of a whole yeres 
viage. 

1 Annals of the Honorable East India Company from 1600-1707-8, by John 
Bruce, Esq., M.P., F.E.S., Keeper of His Majesty's State Papers, and Histiographer 
to the Honorable East India Company. London, 1810 ; vol. i, p. 111. 



" That it may be lawfull for the adventurers anie Stat notwth- 
etanding to sende out forrein coyne, and yf ther shal be a want of 
forrein coyne to furnishe this present viage that ther may be 
quyned in her ma es mynt so muche forrein quyne as shal be 
brought in by the adventurers or by ther meanes." 

1600-1. On the last day of the year 1600, being the 43rd year of the 
reign of Queen Elizabeth, the first lloyal Charter was issued for 
erecting an East India Company. By this Charter the Queen, 
(upon the Petition of the Earl of Cumberland, and Two hundred 
and fifteen other Persons, among whom were several Knights and 
Aldermen of London, praying the Queen's licence to adventure 
and set forth one or more Voyages, by way of Traffic and Mer- 
chandise, to the East Indies, in the Countries and Parts of Asia 
and Africa, and to the islands thereabouts ; divers of which 
Countries and Islands had been long since discovered, though 
not frequented in Trade and Merchandise) incorporated the said 
Earl and other persons, by the name of " The Governor and 
Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies." 
On the 8th of October 1600, the following ships were taken up 
for the first voyage, and assigned over to five of the Committee of 
seventeen Directors, to whom the management of the business was 
entrusted, in trust for the Adventurers : 

Men. Tons. 
The Malice Scourge . 200 600 



The Hector 
The Ascension 
The Susan 
A pinnace 



100 300 

80 260 

80 240 

40 100 



At a General Meeting of the Ad\enturers held in the same 
month (October 1600) it was resolved that the management of 
the concern should be conducted, in future, by- twenty-four Com- 
mittees or Directors, instead of seventeen. These twenty-four 
Directors were elected on the 30th October 1600, and Alderman 
Thomas Smith was chosen the first Governor. 

The arrangements for the first voyage being nearly complete, 
the Society of Adventurers resolved " that the goodes shipped by 
the Companie, and the caskes, shall be marked with this genrall 
marke, as in the mergent, and that an iron be prepared, whch 
shall make the saide marke." This trade mark was subsequently 
reproduced on the copper coinage of the Company. 

Concerning the earliest coinage of the Company Ending says : l 
" By virtue of a Commission, dated January 11 in the same year 
(1600 or 1601), money was made of a kind unknown to the British 
mint either before or since her (Elizabeth's) time, for it was by 
law exportable, and intended for the use of the East India Com- 
pany. It bore on one side the Queen's Arms, and on the other 
a portcullis ; and was called either India money, from the purpose 
for which it was struck, or portcullis money, from the device 
impressed upon it. The weight of it was regulated according to the 
respective weights of the Spanish piastre, or piece of eight reas, and 
the half, the quarter, and half-quarter of the same (pi. xvii, 

1 Annals of the Coinage of Great Britain and its Dependencies. Third ed., 
1840. vol. i, p. 353. 



1-4), though they are now usually called the crown, half-crown, 
shilling, and sixpence. Some coinage of this sort was necessary, 
for the Queen, when she first incorporated the East India Company, 
would not permit them to transport the King of Spain's silver 
coins to the East Indies, though she was frequently solicited by 
the merchants. The reason which they assigned to induce her to 
grant this permission determined her to strike coins for the parti- 
cular purpose of circulation in Asia. They represented to her 
Majesty that her silver coin and stamp were not known in the 
East Indies, which they supposed would induce her to grant them 
a licence to send thither what silver they pleased. The Queen 
and her Privy Council replied that, for the very reason alleged, 
it was her fixed and unalterable resolution not to permit them 
to send the coin of the King of Spain, or of any foreign prince, 
to India ; and that no silver should be exported by her merchants 
but only such as should be coined with her effigies and picture on 
the one side, and the portcullis on the other, of the just weight 
and fineness of the Spanish pieces of eight and pieces of four 
rials. 1 

" Her prudent reason for this was that her name and effigies 
might hereafter be respected by the Asiatics, and she be known as 
great a prince as the King of Spain. 

"Of this money, however, they were not to be permitted to 
export what quantity they thought fit, but only so much as the 
Queen and her Privy Council should approve of ; for her Majesty 
declared that she held it as a special and chief prerogative of her 
crown and dignity to put the portcullis upon all the silver the 
Company should send to the East Indies ; and that she would 
have her merchants, as to the quantity to be exported, subordi- 
nate to her will, and not her will to be ruled at the merchants' 
pleasure." 2 

The Crown or Piece of Eight Eeals (pi. xvii, 1) bears on 
the obverse the English shield crowned in the centre, with the 
initials E.R. crowned at the sides, and the legend o : ELIZABETH : 
D ; G : ANG : FRA : ET : HIB : REGINA ; on the reverse a portcullis 
crowned, and the legend o : POSVI : DEVM : ADIVTOREM : MEVM. 
with chains. The Half Crown or Piece of Four Eeals (pi. xvii, 2) 
and Shilling or Piece of Two Eeals (pi. xvii, 3) are similar to the 
crown, except that they have HIBER : on the obverse ; while the 



1 Notwithstanding this determination the pieces have her arms and not her 
portrait on the obverse. 

2 " Violet's Appeal to Caesar, page 25, where hehas given the figure of the piece of 
the eight reas, which he calls the true figure of the silver coin that Queen Eliza- 
beth allowed the East India merchants to send to those Indies. He has also given 
the representation of three square weights (marked respectively India VIII 
testernes, India IIII testernes, and India II), as being the standard poises of 
the abovesaid coin remaining in his Majesty's mint, within the Tower of London, 
and in the custody of Sir William Parkhurst, Warden of his Majesty's said mint. 
See also Folket, p. 61, and Leake, p. 255. Malynes says, that of these pieces were 
coined in the Tower of London for a trial (in January 1600) some six thousand 
pounds, which could not be made current in the East Indies, because the Spanish 
pieces of eight royals had been before that time counterfeited by other nations, 
which made the East Indians to doubt of our coin, although without cause. [Lex 
Mercatoria, pt. 1, chap. 35. p. 135] " Kuding, op. cit., p. 354, foot-note. 



8 

sixpence or Real (pi. xvii, 4) is similar to the half-crown and 
shilling, except that the legend on the obverse ends with BEGIN or 
REGI. 

1602. The first expedition of the Adventurers reached Acheen on the 
5th of June 1H02, and returned to the Downs on the llth of 
September 1 603, having on the homeward voyage taken in cargo 
at Bantam in the Island of Java, where the privileges of trade 
were acquired from the king, and a factory or house of trade was 
started. 

1604. The following is a copy of a Commission of James I, dated 

23rd of February 1604, authorising the East India Company to 
export the value of 12,000 in foreign coin: 

" James by the grace of Grod, etc. To all men to whom theise 
p'esentes shall come greetynge. Whereas our late deare sister 
Elizabeth by her 1'res patents under the greate seale of England 
bearing date at Westm' the one and thirtith day of December in 
the three and fortith year of her raigne did uppon peticion made 
unto her by her deare and lovinge cosen George earle of Cunib'- 
land and divers other her welbeloved subjects for her royall assent 
and licence to be graunted nnto them that they at their owne 
adventure costs and charges as well for the honor of this realme of 
England as for the increase of navigation and advancement of 
trade of merchandise within the same mighte adventure and sett 
fourthe certayne voyages with a convenient nomber of shippes and 
pynnaces by waie of traffique and merchandize into the East Indies 
in the countries and parts of Asia and Africa did incorporate the 
saide petitioners into a bodie politique by the name of the gover- 
nour and companie of the marchaunts of London tradinge into the 
East Indies to have houlde and enjoy the sole benefit of the trade 
and trafficque of the saide Easte Indies for the space of fifteene 
years from the birth of our Lord Grod then last paste before the 
date of the said 1'res patents. And whereas by the saide 1'res 
patents licence is graunted to the saide governour and companie 
of marchaunts of London tradinge into the East Indies to t'ans- 
porte oute of this realme into the saide Indies in everie of their 
voyages duringe saide tearme of fifteene yeares all such forrein 
coyne of silver Spanishe or other f orreyn silver or bullion of silver 
as they shall duringe the saide tearme bringe or cause to be broughte 
into this realme of England from the parts beyond the seas either in 
the same kynde sorte stampe or fashion which it shall have when 
they brynge it in or anie other forme stampe or fashion to be 
coyned in the mynte within the Tower of London soe as the whole 
quantyties of coyne or monies by them to be transported in anie 
their saide voyages duringe the saide terme doe not exceede the 
value of thirtie thousande pounds in any one voiage and so as the 
som'e of six thousand poundes at the leaste parcell of the same 
som'e or value of thirtie thousande poundes soe to bee trans- 
ported as aforesaide be first coyned within the saide Tower of 
London before the same shal bee transported in anie the saide 
voyages as by the saide 1'res patents more at large app^areth. 
Nowe forasmuch as the saide governour and company of the saide 
marchants since the saide 1'res patents to them granted have* made 
one voyage in the saide East Indies and retourned their shippes 



9 

from thence laden with sondry kinds of marchandize and have alsoe 
prepared and are readie to set forth another voiage into the saide 
East Indies and they the saide governor and company being 
desirous and endevouring by all good meanes to manage and carry 
their saide trade as neere as they can rather by the t'ansportac'on 
of the native commodities of our kingdomes and by the bartering 
and exchange of them for forren com'odities then by using the 
benefit granted them by the said 1'res patents for the carying out 
of so much tresure in every of their voiages doe content themselves 
in this p'esent voyage with the lib'ty of t'ansportac'on of twelve 
thousand pounds in forrein coyne without t'ansportac'on of anie 
other coyne bulloyn or silver and to that end have made humble 
peticyon unto us that they may t'ansport the saide value of twelve 
thousand pounds of forreyn coine without coyning the same or 
anie part thereof in our mynt within our Tower of London the ra- 
ther for that they found by experience in their last voiage that they 
could not without great difficulty and some losse to the said mar- 
chants in the value of their monies newe coyned for that voiage 
make trade for their marchandize in the said East Indies because 
the said mony being stamped with the ymage and sup'sricpc'on of 
our said deare sister was strange and unknowne to the people of 
those parts and the monies now to [be] coyned in our said mint 
being to be coined with a new stamp of our owne ymage and 
sup'scripc'on will nott only draw them into the like hindrance in 
their trade when they shall come into the saide Indies but will 
cause their shipps which are nowe allmoste ready to depart in their 
voiage to stay and to be detained here to their further damage 
and hindrance untill new stamps for the coyning of the said 
monies in our mynt shall be graven and made for that purpose. 
Wee therefore favouring the saide marchants and being desirous to 
give them all furtherance and expedic'on in their p'esent intended 
voiage of our esp'iall grace ce'ten knowledge and mere moc'on 
have granted and by theis p'esents for our heires and successors doe 
grant unto the said governor and company of marchants tradyng 
into the East Indies that it shall and may bee lawfull for them 
their factors "and assignes in thys p'esent intended voiage which is 
prepared or in p'eparing for the second voiage into the said East 
Indies to t'ansport out of this our realme of England all such 
forreyn coyne or silver either Spanish or other forrein silver as 
they have prepared p'cured or gotten or shall prepare p'cr'se or 
gett being already broughte or to be broughte from the parts be- 
yond the seas before the dep'ting of their shipps out of the river of 
Thames so as the wholl quantity of the coyne and monies by them 
to be t'ansported in this their p'esent intended voiage being the 
second voiage toward the said Indies does not exceed the saide 
value of twelve thousand pounds the same to be t'ansported in the 
same kinde sort stamp or fashion as the said moneys is or shal be 
p'cured gotten or broughte into this realme of England and that 
withoute anie newe coyning or alte'ing of the said monies or anie 
part thereof from the stampe which it beareth. Anie statute 
restraint p'hibic'on in that behalf to the cont'ary in any wise 
notwithstanding. In witness whereof, etc. Witness ourself at 
Westim' the xxiijth day of February." 



10 

A quarter Real of James I, bearing on the obverse a thistle 
and portcullis with chains, and on the reverse an anchor-cross, is 
referred by Weyl to the Madras Presidency. 1 

1612. In 1612 trade was opened with Surat by Mr. Kerridge, who 

was well received by the merchants and inhabitants, but opposed 
by the Portuguese. The Company's ships were attacked by the 
Portuguese at Swally on the 29th of November 1612, and repulsed. 
In the following month a Firman was obtained from the Emperor 
of Delhi, allowing the English to establish a factory at Surat, 
where Captain Best lelt ten persons with a stock of 4,000 to 
purchase goods or provide an investment for him. The agreement 
with the Governor of Surat for allowing to the English liberty of 
trade at that port, in addition to other stipulations, contained one 
to the effect that the English should be allowed to settle factories 
at the cities of Amadevar (Ahmedhabad), Cambaya, and Goga, as 
well as at Surat. 

1614. On the 14th of January 1614, in compliance with the wishes 
of the Company, King James I granted a commission to Sir 
Thomas .Boe " to be Ambassador to the Great Mogul, or King 
of India." The Governor of Surat was dismissed, and a treaty 
concluded with the Mogul, in which it was stipulated, inter alia, 
that the English should have liberty of trade, and be allowed to 
settle factories in any port of the Mogul empire, specifying 
Bengal, Scindy, and Surat. 

1615. Meanwhile the Company was making considerable progress 
with its commercial speculations on the Malabar coast, and 
Captain Keelinge, on his arrival at Cranganore in March 1615, 
obtained liberty of trade and permission to settle a factory ; and 
it was agreed by treaty that the English and the Zamorin should 
join their forces, and expel the Portuguese from Cochin, which, 
when conquered, should be ceded to the English, they paying one 
half of the expenses of the expedition, and the Zamorin the other 
half. 

1616. In the following year (1616) a Dutch ship was wrecked near 
Surat, and ten merchants were left there as the managers of a 
projected trade, the remainder of the officers and crew proceeding 
overland to the factory at Masulipatam. 2 

1625. I n 1625 the English President and Council at Batavia 

submitted to the Court to direct their attention to the trade on 
the Coromandel coast, and dispatched a vessel to Masulipatam. 
Further, having obtained from the Naig, or Chief of the district, 
a piece of ground, the English erected a factory at Armagon, 
which it was intended to make a subordinate agency to Masuli- 
patam. 

1628. On account of the oppressions which the English factors at 

Masulipatam experienced at the hands of the native Governor of 
that port, it was resolved in 1628 to abandon the factory at that 

1 Cuartino (\ Real, o.j.) Distelkopf, Fallgilter, an den Seiten mit Ketten 
versehen. Rf. Ankerkreutz mit . in den Winkeln. Weyl. 

2 Note from "Hobson-Jobson " by Colonel Henry Yule and Arthur Coke Burnell, 
1886. " 1789. Masulipatam, which last word, by the way, ought to be written, 
JIachlipatan (Fish-town) because of a whale that happened to be stranded there 
150 years ago." Note on Seir MutagJ.erin, iii, 370. 



11 

place, leaving behind only one of the factors to recover the debts. 
The representation of the Agents at Bantam to the President and 
Council at Swat of the necessity of being supplied with Coro- 
mandel cloths, to furnish that station and the Southern markets 
with the means of increasing their investments in pepper and 
spices, had determined the Presidency to re-establish the factory 
at Masulipatam, and to strengthen Armagon ; and the necessary 1632. 
authority to do so was obtained in November 1632. 

A Firman was obtained on the 2nd of February 1633 for 1633. 
liberty of trade to the English in the Province of Bengal, with- 
out any other restriction, than that the English ships were to 
resort only to the port of Pipley. This event marks the date at 
which the English first obtained the right to enter the Ganges, 
and those countries which, subsequently, opened up a most 
lucrative trade. 

lu 1 639 Mr. Day, one of the Council at Masulipatam, was sent 1639. 
to explore the country in the neighbourhood of the Portuguese 
station at St. Thome, and reported that Madraspatan l was 
a situation, at which, in his opinion, the best coast goods 
could be procured. The land was purchased from the Raja of 
Clumdragiri and, without waiting for orders from the Court, 
Mr. Day commenced building, at the expense of the Company, 
a fortification to which the name of Fort St. Greorge was given. 
The continuation of this work was ordered later by the President 
and Council of Surat, and the new station, to which the factory 
of Masulipatam was transferred, made subordinate to Bantam. 

The early gold coin of Madras was the pagoda, a word which, 
Moor says 2 " is a word altogether unknown beyond the corrupt- 
ing influence of European colloquial example, whether used des- 
criptively of a coin or a temple ; the former being generally called 
by Hindus Pun. 

" As to the word pagoda, applied either to a coin or a temple, 
to the latter especially it ought to be dropped as inaccurate and 
barbarous, and not at all used by the natives out of the reach 
of European tradition. I find an attempt to derive the word 
from Mahometan authority, imagining that anti-idolatrous people 
to have called the temples of the Hindus by the deba-sing but 
accurate appellation of biit-ydda : from but, an idol, and ydda, a 
temple. Bartholomeo says the coin, being impressed with the 
goddess Bhagavada, is, therefore, so called : pagoda being a 
corruption or abbreviation. But, admitting Bhagavada to be a 
name of Devi, and to be borne by some puns, it would apply to 
such only ; whereas we give it to all gold coins of about the 
value of seven or eight shillings, be the impression what it may. 
And, indeed, I have lately seen a silver coin, worth about four 
shillings, with the word pagoda, or half puyoda, in English, with 



1 Note from Yule and Burnell, op. cit. " 1672 following upon Madras- 

patan, otherwise called Chinnepatan, where the English have a fort called St. 
George, chiefly garrisoned by Toepasses aud .V/S.'MV.S-,- from this place they annually 
send forth their ships, as also from Suratte." B<i!rltr>>.is, Germ, ed., 152. 

1726. "The Town or Place, anciently called Qhinapatnam, now called Madras- 
patnam and Fort St. George." /><.'/'?.- l } n/<'i<f, in Charters <'' E<i*> I /'.'Ha <'< 
368-9. 

- Hindu Pantheon. Ed. 180-i. pp. 310-11. 



12 

some oriental characters stamped on it, and a representation of a 
Hindu temple. This coin I imagine to be intended for Madras, 
and cannot but lament that so miserable a specimen of our taste 
and talents should be suffered to go forth. To say that the 
execution is worthy of the design is to stigmatise both with 
deserved reprobation." Writing about the Pagoda, Dr. Bidie 
remarks l " The common Tamil name for the pagoda is Vardha, 
an appellation due to the circumstance that some of the older 
types had on the obverse the figure of a Vardha or Boar, the 
symbol of the Chalukyas and kings of Vijayanagar, or the image 
of Vishnu in the Vardha avatar. The Hindustani name of 
the pagoda is Hun, a word probably derived from Honmt, the 
Canarese designation of the half pagoda. That the Mahome- 
dans should have adopted this corruption of the Canarese term 
for the coin is explained by the fact that, when they invaded the 
Carnatic, they first saw the pagoda or half pagoda in the hands 
of a Canarese-speaking people. According to Sir Walter Elliot 
the term vardha is never used in ancient Tamil records in con- 
nection with money, but the word pon, which was a piece equal to 
the modern half pagoda, the pagoda itself being the double pon, 
which ultimately became the varaha" 

Speaking of the Chandragiri Pagoda Marsden says : 2 
" Chandragiri or Chandergherry, which gives name to these 
huns, is a town in the Karnatik, formerly the capital of what 
was called by our early travellers the kingdom of Narsinyha, in 
consequence of its having been rendered a place of great strength 
by Narsingha ltdjd of Vijayanagara. After the conquest of 
the latter city by the Mahometan States of the peninsula, in 
the sixteenth century, a descendent of Narsingha transferred 
the seat of Hindu government to Chandra-girl, from whence 
the last of the race was expelled in 1646. It was from one of 
these rajas that the English East India Company purchased, in 
the year 1620, the spot of ground on which stood the old fort and 
factory of Madras, now inclosed within the works of Fort St. 
Greorge, together with the privilege of coining money, under the 
stipulation that the English should not fail to preserve on their 
coinage the representation of that deity, who was the favourite 

object of his worship The female figure on the obverse 

appears to be that of Lakshmi. There are other specimens pre- 
cisely resembling this as to the reverse, which have three erect 
figures (a male accompanied by two females) on the obverse, 
whose costume denotes them to be mortal rather than divine per- 
sonages. These are vulgarly termed three-swami 3 pagodas, and 

1 Journ. As. Soc., Beng-., 1883, p. 35. 

2 Numismata Orientalia, 1825, pt. ii, p. 739, pi. xlviii, fig. mlxxvi. 

3 Notes from Yule and Burnell, op. cifc. 

" Swamy, Sammy, s. This word is a corruption of the Skt. suamin, '.Lord.' 
It is especially used in South India, and in two senses : (a) a Hindu idol ; 
especially as Sammy, in the dialect of the British soldier. This comes from the 
usual Tamil pronunciation sami ; (b) the Skt. word is used by Hindus as a term 
of respectful address. 

" Swamy-pagoda, s. A coin formerly current at Madras ; probably so called 
from the figure of an idol on it. Milburn gives Swamy-pagodas =110 Star 
Pagodas. A ' f/iree-swami pagoda ' was .a name given to a gold coin bearing on 
the obverse the effigy of Chenna Keswam Swami (a title of Krishna) and on the 
reverse Laksh-ni and Rukmini." 



13 

weigh 2 dwt. 4^ grs. M. Tavernier's Plate Nos. 5 and 6 are 
imperfect representations of them under the name of the raja 
of Carnatica's pagoda." According to Dr. Bidie l the standing 
figures on this pagoda are intended to represent Venkatesvara and 
his two wives. In connection with this coin Sir Walter Elliot 
writes 2 : " The type of the first class (having the standing figure 
of Vishnu, with or without his two wives, on the obverse, and a 
granulated reverse) appears to have been derived from the favour 
in which the Vaishnava tenets were held by the later Vijaya- 
nagar princes of Chandragiri, the chiefs of Venkatagiri, and at 
the sacred shrine of Tripati. It thus came to be adopted by the 
European factories, and by the Nawabs of the Carnatic. Conspi- 
cuous examples of these are found in the Star Pagoda (vide pi. 
xi, 3) of the English East India Company at Madras, and 
in the Porto Novo Pagoda (vide pi. xi, 2) believed to have been 
first coined by the Portuguese at Porto Novo or Feringhipet, and 
at Arcot under the Nivayat Nawabs of the Carnatic. The huns 
of Sa'adut Ulla Khan of this type, who succeeded Nawab 
Dawad Khan, and died in 1731, are recognised by the Persian 
letters (i/fa/t) on the granulated reverse, which is replaced on those 
of his relative Safdar 'Ali Khan by the letter (ain). On his 
murder in 1741, the office of Nawab was conferred by the Nizam 
on another family, that of Anwar-ud-din-Khdn, but his son 
Muhammad 'Ali received his investiture direct from Delhi, with 
the high-sounding title of Walajah Nawab-ul-hind in 1766. In 
1858 I received some information regarding his coinage with 
extracts of the mint accounts from the Dewan of the late Nawab. 
By these it appears "Walajah struck coins at other places besides 
Arcot, viz., Porto Novo, Trichinopoly, and Tiruvamur, and among 
the coins named are the Walajahi, Ktiruki, ' Umdat-ul-Mulld, Star, 
and Feringhipet. 3 Some of these I have not seen. The Kuruki 
is not uncommon. It has the three standing figures strongly 
marked, and a plain granulated surface. It and the Star, so called 
from the star impressed on the granulated surface, were probably 
coined at Tiruvamur, beyond the precints of the English factory, 
at which place the mint was said to be still standing in 1858. 
According to the Imperial Gazetteer the Madras mint was built 



1 L. c., p. so. 

2 Numismat. Orient. Coins of Southern India, 1885, pp. 143-4. 

3 The mint records of Hijri 1186 = A.D. 1772 show that the gold coinage 
was 

Walajdhi pagodas ... ... ... ... 1,370M 

Kuruki 22,654^ 

'Umdat-ul-Mulki 995|| 

Star 3,81,052^3 

Feringhipet 15,098- 3 V 

Total ... 4,21,171 

The silver coinage for the same year was 

Arcot rupees 7,230 12 9 

Tirumavur ... ... ... ... 230 

Old Pondicherry 10 6 

Total ... 7,233 10 15 



14 

within the walls of Fort St. George in 1723. But the factory 
must have exercised the right of coining at a much earlier period, 
for the Madras Public Records state that consignments of bullion 
despatched to Fort St. George on the appointment of Sir Greorge 
Winter as Governor in 1661 were coined into pagodas in the Forb 
mint, of what denomination, however, is not stated. 1 Also that 
in 1688 a proclamation was issued forbidding the introduction 
into the factory of a counterfeit pagoda, fabricated at the Dutch 
mint of Pulicat 2 " of the same stamp, but not three-quarters the 
value of ours, which has raised great doubts and scandals upon 
our coin, to the depreciating it two or three per cent, below Pulicat 
pagodas, even in our city, by the Merchants and Shroffs to the 
great prejudice and discredit of our pagodas, and loss of our mint 
custom : it is therefore agreed and ordered that Proclamation be 
made in several parts of the town and city, prohibiting all persons 
whatever from advancing anything upon the Pulicat pagoda by 
exchange ; and whosoever shall offend herein, to pay twenty 
pagodas for the first fault, and double for the second, and a twelve 
months' imprisonment for the third. Also that all persons be 
forbidden to send gold from hence to be coined at Pulicat mint, 
upon forfeiture thereof upon due proofs ; and that the Justices of 
the Peace do appoint the publishing and affixing these orders in 
English, Portuguese, and Grentoo at several public places of the 
city." Still later, during the siege of Fort St. George in 1702, 
among other conditions of surrender, Nawab Dawad Khan de- 
mands the surrender of the mint." 

In addition to the Three- Swami and Porto Novo or Scott 
Pagodas, the old Star pagoda of Madras, or, as it is also called Com- 
pany varaha or Puli varaha, was struck in the early days of the 
Company, but I am unable to find any reference which indicates 
its earliest date of circulation. It bears on one side a figure in- 
tended apparently for Vishnu with a star above the head, and on 
the other side a granulated surface with a 5-rayed star (pi. xi, 3). 
In this coin all public and private accounts were kept, and 
all dues and salaries paid for a number of years. 3 A brass coin of 
the same type is contained in the collection of the Madras Museum, 
to which I can find no reference in the Records, and it is possibly 
only a fraudulent imitation. 

The double and single star pagodas represented on plate xi, 
figs. 4 & 5 are a more modern development of the old Star 
Pagoda, and concerning them Dr. Bidie writes : 4 " It is of this 



1 Wheeler, Madras in the Olden Time, vol. i, p. 32. 

2 As regards Pulicat Pagodas Tavernier says : " Figs. 3 and 4 is the Gold 
Money which the Hollanders coin at Palicate, which is a Fort they possess upon 
the coast of Coromandel. Those pieces are also call'd Pagods, and are of the 
same weight with the Others ; but for the goodness, I think they are bettor by 
two or three in the hundred, than those of the Kings and Z-'r//'.i.- - of the Country, 
or which the English make. I made .this observation, being at the Diamond- 
Mines, and in other parts of the Indies where there is any great trade. For the 
first thing they ask you is, whether you have any Pagods of FcZiVa/-' ; and, if you 
have, you speed much better in your business." Voyages through Turkey, Persia, 
and the Indies. London, 1678, pt. ii, p. 6. 

3 See Dr. G. Bidie, Pagoda or Vardha Coins. Journ. As. Soc.. Beng., vol. 52, 
1883, p. 51. 

1 L. c,, pp. 51-2. 



15 

form that Moor in his ' Hindu Pantheon ' says : " this coin I 
imagine to be intended for the use of Madras, and cannot but 
lament that so miserable a specimen of our taste and talents should 
be suffered to go forth." In designing it the artist seems to have 
deemed it necessary to give some reason for the name pagocla, by 
putting on the reverse the figure of the gopuram of a Hindu 
temple, and he then surrounded this with stars to indicate that it 
was a star pagoda. Again on the obverse, to keep it in harmony 
with the old forms, he has introduced the figure of a Hindu god, 
which is apparently intended for Yishnu. There is no date on the 
coin, but it appears to have been first brought into circulation 
early in the present century. 

Obverse. The gopuram of a temple surrounded with stars, and 
the inscription in English " TWO PAGODAS." 

Rercrse. Vishnu surrounded with dots, and the inscription 
" two pagodas " in Tamil and Telugu. 

" Counterfeit specimens of this pagoda are very often seen in 
jewelry, but may usually be easily detected, as in the genuine 
nuns the milling on the edge is oblique like a section of a rope, 
whereas in the forged ones the milling is like that on modern 
English coins. The coin as a whole is certainly a hideous pro- 
duction, but curious as perhaps the first departure from a native 
towards a European type." 

There is in the Madras Museum a necklet made up entirely of 
single pagodas of the last type, but bearing the word DEITY 
above the gopuram instead of PAGODA, and having a straight 
milling instead of an oblique milling on the edge. I am unable 
to find any reference to similar coins, and they must, I think, be 
regarded as ornamental imitations. 

In the year 1642 the first regular despatch was received by 1642, 
the Company from Bengal, Mr. Day recommending therein that 
the Court should establish a station at Ballasore, and declaring 
that it would be unwise either to neglect or desert the speculation 
of a trade in Bengal. Four years later the Agent and Council 
of Fort St. George were raised to the rank of a Presidency. 

By the eleventh article of the Treaty of Marriage between 1661. 
King Charles II and the Infanta Catherine of Portugal, dated 
23rd June 16G1, the Crown of Portugal ceded and granted to the 
Crown of England the Island and Harbour of Bombay, in full 
sovereignty ; and it was understood that this grant would enable 
the two Crowns to maintain their respective dominions in the 
East Indies against any future aggressions and encroachments on 
their subjects and trade by the Dutch Company. On the 27th of 
March 1668 the King, by Letters Patent, transferred the Island 
of Bombay from the Crown to the East India Company, grant- 
ing the Port and Island of Bombay to the London East India 
Company in perpetuity, "with all the rights, profits and territories 
thereof, in as full manner as the King himself possessed them, by 
virtue of the Treaty with the King of Portugal, by which the 
Island was ceded to his Majesty, to be held by the Company of 
the King, in free and common soccage, as of the manor of East 



16 

Greenwich, on payment of the annual rent of 10 in gold on the 
30th September in each year." 

As regards the coinage of the Company during the reign of 
Charles II, Ruding says : l " The English merchants trading to 
the East Indies did in this reign strike silver money in India for 
the use of their factory at Bombaim, formerly a settlement of the 
Portuguese, but yielded up to his Majesty upon his marriage with 
the Infanta of Portugal in 1662. I have not been able to discover 
the time when the licence to coin this money was granted to the 
Company, but the earliest of the coins that are known bear date 
of 1678. 

" The earliest coins for the use of the East India Company 
were either struck by our monarchs, or coined by their authority. 
Of the former kind were the portcullis pieces of Elizabeth in 
1600-1. 

" In the reign of Charles II the Company began, by authority 
from the Crown, to strike silver coins for the use of the factory at 
Bombay. They were fanams and rupees, all of which bore either 
the name, or some reference to the sovereign." 

Writing further concerning the early coinage of the Company, 
Kuding says : 2 " Soon after the East India Company obtained 
territorial possessions in India, it began the exercise of that pri- 
vilege, which in all countries, and in the East especially, has 
been considered the right and proof of sovereignty the coining 
of money. The circumstances of the Company's coinage were, 
however, as anomalous as those of the Company itself, which, 
although to a certain extent possessed of territory, was for a long 
time obliged to conciliate the native princes, under whom medi- 
ately or immediately it held dominion, by professing to ac- 
knowledge their supremacy, whilst it still continued necessarily 
included amongst the subjects of Great Britain. It therefore 
adopted the policy of seeking the sanction of the Crown to its 
establishment of local mints ; and at the same time it fabricated 
in these mints coins not in its own name in general, nor with 
English legends and devices, but in imitation of the established 
currency of the country, with inscriptions in the Persian or other 
native language, and in the name of the Emperor of Delhi, or 
some other Indian prince. The coinage of money on its own 
account appears to have commenced at Bombay, which island 
was held in more independence, at first, than any other landed 
possession. Accordingly in 1671 the Court of Directors gave 
instructions to their servants at Bombay to establish a mint upon 
the island, and a few years afterwards the measure was sanctioned 
by the Crown. A clause in the Charter granted in the 26th year 
of the reign of Charles II, dated the 5th of October 1677, em- 
powers the East India Company to stamp and coin money at 
Bombay, to be current wherever the Company's privilege of 
trade in the East Indies extended, to be called by the name of 



1 Op. cit., vol. ii, p. 18, and foot-note, p. 112. 
3 Op. cit., vol. ii, p. 418. 



17 

rupees, pices, and budgrooks, l and to bear any such seal, im- 
pression, and inscription, as the Company should think proper, so 
that such moneys so stamped and coined should not be called or 
known by any other name or names of money current in the 
realm of England or any other part of the British dominions, the 
East Indies excepted." 

Writing during the reign of Charles II concerning the 
money coined by the English in the Indies, Tavernier says : 2 
" Figure 1 and 2 is the money which the English coin in their 
Fort St. George, or else at Madrespatan, upon the coast of Coro- 
mandel. They call them Pagods, as those of the Kings and Rajas 
of the country are called. They are of the same weight, the 
same goodness, ami pass for the same value. Formerly the 
English never coined any silver or copper money ; for in some 
parts that border upon the Indians, where they have factories, 
as at Stirat, Mmlipatatn, or at Bantam, they find it more profit- 
able to carry gold from England than silver ; gold lying in less 
room, and not being so troublesome ; besides, that by carrying 
gold they more easily escape the paying those customs which the 
Kings impose upon gold and silver. But since the present King 
of England (Charles II) married the Princess of Portugal, who had 
in part of her portion the famous Port of Bombeye, where the 
lliKjIish are very hard at work to build a strong fort, they coin 
both silver, copper, and tiiin. But the money will not go at 
Surat, nor in any part of the Great Mogul's Dominions, or in any 
of the territories of the Indian Kings ; only it passes among the 
English in their fort, and some two or three leagues up in the 
country, and in the villages along the Coast; the country people 
that bring them their wares being glad to take that money ; 
otherwise they would see but very little stirring, in regard the 
country is very poor, and the people have nothing to sell but 
Aqua ritcG, made of coco-wine and rice." 

With regard to the tin money referred to in the last paragraph, 
I cannot do better than quote the remarks of Mr. T. Gr. DaCunha, 
who says: 3 "-Tin coin was current in Portuguese districts round 
about Bombay, and the English of Bombay issued it may be for 
the sake of uniformity theirs of the same material. The speci- 
mens of the latter coinage which have hitherto reached us appear 
to have been struck between 1708 and 1773, subsequent to the 

1 Notes on Budgrook from Yale and Burnell, op. cit. 

" Budgrook, s. Port, bazarucco. A coin of low denomination, and of varying 
value and metal (copper, tin, lead, and tutenague) formerly current at Goa and 
elsewhere on the Western coast, as well as at some other places on the Indian 
seas. It was also adopted from the Portugaese in the earliest English coinage 
at Bombay. In the earliest Goa coinage, that of Albuquerque (1510) the leal 
or ~bazarucco was equal to 2 reis, of which reis there went 420 to the gold 
cruzado." 

1638. " They have (at Gombroon) a certain copper coin which they call 
Besorg, whereof 6 make a Peys, and 10 Peys make a Chay (Shdhl) which is worth, 
about 5cL English."- V. and Tr. of J. A., Mandelslo into the East Indies, 
E.T. 1669, p. 8. 

2 Voyages through Turkey into Persia and the East Indies. Ed., London, 
1678, p. 5. 

3 Contributions to the Study ot Indo-Portueuese Numismatics. 1880, pp, 
24-27. 



18 

Mutiny of the Bombay troops under Keigwin, the fusion of the 
old and new East India Companies into the United East India 
Company, and the creation of the three Presidencies ruled by 
Governors in Council, those of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, 
each of them absolute within its own limits, until the appointment 
of a Governor-General for all India in 1773. It is true that, 
during the time of the Commonwealth, pewter was employed in 
coining farthings, and some pattern farthings of tin were also pre- 
pared in the reign of Charles I, and the early part of that of 
Charles II, which were made current in 1684, and continued to be 
coined until 1692, when this currency ceased. These dates are, 
however, too early to account for the existence of the Bombay tin 
coinage, which appears to be an imitation, from reasons to be 

mentioned hereafter, of a similar Portuguese mintage 

It was not only by the adoption of this material for their coinage, 
but even by the imitation of types and symbols, which were 
originally Portuguese, that the rising power of the English of 
Bombay gave a tacit proof of their appreciation of the inventive 
power of their allies and neighbours, the Portuguese, whose star 
was now declining, but were still masters of all the districts round 
about Bombay up to the year 1740. The Portuguese of Chaul 
had struck a copper bazantcco, bearing a sheaf of arrows and a 
bow on the obverse, and the Coat-of -Arms of the Kingdom on the 
reverse. This coin was issued some time prior to 1577, and must 
have been current in the environs of Bombay. This device is 
found engraven on one of the ruined gates of that once famous 
city. The gate was built in 1577, as testified to by an inscrip- 
tion, a fac-simile of which, with a lithograph representing the 
gate itself, is inserted in my work on that city. l The gate is 
surmounted by the well-known D. Manuel's terrestrial globe, 
three arrows in a sheaf, the Coat-of- Arms of the Kingdom of 
Portugal, and the Cross of the Order of Christ above them all. 
Here the globe denotes the power, the broad belt which encircles 
it being intended to represent the conquests and discoveries of 
the Portuguese throughout the world, and the three arrows tied 
together peace, which the Portuguese had enjoyed before the 
building of this part of the fortifications uninterruptedly for 
thirty long years, which w ? as an unusual occurrence in those 
troublous times. 

Now the three arrows tied together were engraven or repre- 
sented not only on lithic, but even on numismatic monuments 
of the Portuguese in India. The English of Bombay copied this 
emblem on their copper pieces, bearing on one side a crown and on 
the other three arrows tied together, flanked by the letters G and 
R in italic for Georgius and Bex, with the legend Auspicio Rcffis 
ft Senatm Anglice below. To the Portuguese, who appear to have 
imitated this device from a Spanish coin current in Portugal 
between 1557 and 1641, called real <lc prnta, or 'silver real,' it 
was an emblem of peace, to the English of Bombay probably a 
mere ornament, if not a meaningless type." 

1 History and Antiquities of Chaul and Basseiu. Bombay, 1876, p. 81. 



19 

The following types of Anglo-Indian money were issued 
during the reign of Charles II l : 

1. Silver Rupee A.D. 1667. 

Obverse. Within a beaded circle MON. BOMBAY. ANGLIC. EEGIMS. 
A7 ; around A. DEO. PAX. & INCREMENTVM. 

Reverse. A shield with the arras of the Company within a beaded 
circle ; around IND. OKI. HON. soc. ANG. (pi. xviii, 1). 

2. Silver Rupee A.D. 1677. 

Obverse. In centre THE RVPEE. OF BOMBAIM with rosettes ; around 

BY. AVTHORITY. OF CHARLES. THE. SECOND. 1677. 

Reverse. In centre the Royal arms of England in a shield, and a 
crown above the shield; around KING. OF GREAT. BRITAIN. FRANCE. AND 

IRELAND. 

Coins of the same type were struck, with both plain and milled 
edge in 1678 (pi. xviii, 2). 

3. Silver Rupee. Without date. 

Obverse. A shield of arms between two wreaths. 

Reverse. In centre PAX DEO within a beaded circle ; around MONETA 

BOMBAIENSIS. 

(pi. xviii, 5). 

4. A half Rupee vrith device and legends similar to No. 3. 

5. A pattern Rupee, in the British Museum, bearing on the 
obverse a shield of arms similar to No. 3, and on the reverse C.R. 
1673. 

6. Copper Pice with device and legends similar to No. 1 and, 
as Atkins suggests, probably from the same die. The character of 
the letters on the obverse varies somewhat in different coins of 
this type, the legend being blundered in various ways, and read- 
ing, e.g., ONET. ox HAY. XGI3G. GiM. A coin of the same type is 
referred to by both Thomas and Atkins, in which the legend reads 

MOET. BOMBAY. AXGLIC. REG. A9 (pi. Xviil, 3). 

7. A copper Cash of the year 1678, bearing on the obverse an 
orb and cross inscribed 78, and on the reverse some undecipherable 
native characters, to the interpretation of which I have not been 
able to find any clue. 

8. A Farthing of the year 1674, in the British Museum, bearing 
on the obverse CA.ROLVS A CAROLO, and on the reverse REX BRI- 
TAXXIA, re-struck with the die for the silver rupee No. 2. 

9. A lead coin in the British Museum of the year 1678 ?, men- 
tioned by Thomas as having types and legends as in the silver 
rupees. 

10. A pewter (Zinn} coin of the year 1675 referred to by "Weyl 
as being of the value of 2 Cash, and having on the observe device 
and legends similar to the rupee No. 3, and on the reverse 2'75 
(pi. six, 4). 

1 Vide Wr-yl, Neumann, Atkins, and an article by Mr. Edward Thomas, F.R.S., 
in the Indian Antiquary, 1882. 



20 

11. Silver Coins, bearing on the obverse two C's interlinked, 
and on the reverse the figure of a deity (Vislmu '?). 

Two different sizes of the silver coin of Charles II with the 
linked C's and figure of a deity, called by Atkins ! the double and 
single Fanam, and of the type represented on pi. xi, 11-12, are 
still met with in the bazaars of Southern India. Of this type 
coins of three sizes, called respectively the double Fanam, Fanam, 
and half Fanam, are mentioned by Weyl, who calls the deity on 
the obverse " dei Gott Swami." Another type (pi. xv, 8) 
of which the Madras Museum possesses specimens, and which I 
saw for the first time in the British Museum, diffciing from the 
preceding in the character of the devices, which are encircled by a 
ring of dots, was also struck. As regards the source from which 
the Fanams were issued, they are attributed by Weyl to the Madras 
Presidency, and Captain Tufnell writes 2 : " It has usually been 
attributed to the Bombay Mint, though for the following reasons I 
am inclined to think it more probable that it is an issue of Mndras, 
coined during Charles' reign- In the first phice the type of coin 
connects it with the design imposed by the Vijeyanagar king on 
the Madras Mint ; secondly, it differs entirely from all the known 
issues struck at the time in Bombay ; thirdly, it fits in with the 
Hindu s} r stem of the South ; and. lastly, it is occasionally met 
with in this Presidency, while, from inquiries I have made from 
collectors in Bombay, I find that it is rarely, if ever, found there." 
1686. -"- n consequence of fruitless negotiation for many years to 

obtain permission from the Native Powers to coin the country 
money, the Court in 1686 applied to the King for authority to 
institute a mint for this purpose, and his Majesty (James II) 
granted a new Charter, dated the 12th April 1686, by which all 
the former Charters were renewed and confirmed, and power was 
given the Company to " coin in their forts any species of money 
usually coined by the Princes of those countries, so that it be 
made agreeable to the standards of those Princes in weight 
and fineness, and so that they do not coin any European money ; 
and it is declared that all such money so to be coined by them 
shall be current in any city, town, port, or place, within the 
limits of the Company's Charters, but not elsewhere." Thus 
authorised, the Court directed the President and Council of Fort 
St. Greorge to take particular care that the coins, in stamps, 
inscriptions, and fineness, should resemble those issued by the 
Mogul at Hajahniahl, particularly the rupees, it being of inferior 
moment to offend that sovereign, in this respect, from the war 
which had been resolved on against his dominions. Application 
was, at the same time, to be made to the King of Grolcondah 3 for 

1 Atkins' Coins of British Possessions and Oolonies, 1889. 

2 "Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 1888, p. 191. 

3 Extracts from a letter from the Company to Fort St. George, dated London, 
24f.h December 1675 : " As to the Piscash for the King of Golcondah, if it be not 
already done, we do hope with it you may obteyn our liberty to coyne silver 
Rupees and copper Pice at the Fort, which would be a great accommodation in 
onr trade. But in this and all other Pisfashos be as sparing as you can." 

" Inconvenience having resulted from valuing the Pagoda at 8 shillings and 
the Rupee at 2s. fid., order that in future in account the Pagoda be valued afc 
9 shillings, and the Rupee at 2s. 3d., but the soldiers to receive as many Fanaraa 
per Pagoda as of old. " 



21 

a Phir win iid, giving his authority to the Company to coin rupees, 
and other money in the mint at Madras, and that this money 
might be current in his dominions ; and in all future treaties 
with the Country Powers, an article was to be introduced, stipu- 
lating that the Company's coin should be allowed to be current in 
their territories. The Presidency of Surat were, further, directed 
to use such stamps, dies, and tools, as were common in the 
country, and to issue a coinage, which might facilitate equally the 
administration of the Company's affairs in Bombay, and their 
commercial transactions at the ports, where corresponding coins 
were current. Instructions were also given, relative to the mint 
at Madras, that this Presidency should make use of the country 
stamps and dies, under the King's authority, and coin small copper 
money, proportions of which were to be circulated at BencoOlen. 

A silver Rupee of James II was struck in 1687, which bears the 1687. 
following legends and devices : 



Centre. PAX 

DEO. 

Margin. BOMBAIEXSIS MONETA. 1687. 

Reverse. 

Centre. Shield, with the arras of the East India Company (pi. 

xviii, 4). 

During the season 1688-9 the Court received information that 1688-9. 
a treaty had been made with the Moghul, and that Sir John Child 
had negotiated a Provisional Convention with Muchtar Khan, the 
Governor of Surat, by which the Company w r ere allowed to coin 
money at Surat, in the Moghul's mint-house ; but the Court 
preferred acting on the authority given them by their recent 
Charter, of having a mint at Bombay, as this would impress the 
Natives with the importance of the place ; and they hoped that, in 
time, they would be able to supply the Bengal market withrupct s 
coined at Bombay, or, at any rate, exchange their Bombay rupees 
for those coined at Surat, which would pass current in Bengal, or 
in any part of" the Moghul's dominions. The Court, on this occa- 
sion, submitted the question to the consideration of the General, 
whether the coinage at Bombay ought not to include gold mohurs, 
as the Company had the Moghul's Phirmaund, and the King's 
Charter, to exercise this branch of delegated sovereignty. 

Under the arrangements which were suggested about this time 
for making Bombay the seat of the Regency, Sir John Child was 
ordered to be specially attentive to the out-factories on the Malabar 
coast ; the station at Retorah, in the Queen of Attinga's country, 
was ordered to be fortified, and the factory of Tellicherry strength- 
ened. At the latter place were subsequently minted the silver coins, 
represented on pi. ii, \-% & pi. iii, 2-3, specimens of which in the 
Madras Museum bear the dates [17] 99 (?) and 1805 respectively. 
As regards the former of these coins Captain Tufnell says : J " I 
had always looked upon this 99 as being an abbreviated form of 

the date 1799, but I have seen a small gold coin exactly 

corresponding to the one here described, but with the date 1801 in 

1 Madras Journal of Literature and Science, 1888, p. 192. 



22 

the exergue, the ' 99 ' still appearing at the top. " The gold coin 
of the t} T pe here referred to is contained in the collection of the 
Madras Museum (pi. iii, 4). 

1688-9. At this period (1688-9), when the affairs of the Company 
were generally unsettled, Fort St. George and Madras, which 
had recently been made a Corporation by Charter, were in a state 
of tranquillity, the mint was prosperous, and the Company's 
rupees were in considerable request, though, on account of their 
intrinsic value, they were melted down by the country people, 
under the idea of deriving profit from the sale of bullion. 
1691. In 1691 the Court ordered the factories at Conimere and 
Cuddalore to be withdrawn, as a purchase had been made, from 
the Earn Raja, of a new settlement at Tegnapatam or Fort St. 
David. The gold coin known as the Porto Novo, Scott, Purunki, 
&c., pagoda, [pi. xi, 2] appears, says Dr. Bidie, l " to have 
been first struck by the Dutch, and to have had an extensive 
circulation. Subsequently it was copied by agents of the East 
India Company, as is evident from, the following extract from a 
letter from the Madras Council to the Deputy Governor of Fort 
Saint David (near Cuddalore), under date the 21st July 1691. 2 
" We doubt the Dutch will make a clamour at your coining their 
pagodas, and decry them all they can ; however, make the experi- 
ment, but be sure to equal them in all respects both in fineness 
and weight and stamp, and we shall give them all the reputation 
we can here and to the southward, and, could you effect it, 
currently it would be of great service to the Honourable Company 
in their trade in those parts, but if you fail you must make 
another stamp." 3 

1693-5. A copper Cash is referred to by Weyl, and attributed to 
William and Mary, bearing on the obverse the monogram c ^ c - 
and on the reverse the date . . 95 (1695 ?) ; and copper Fa luce or 
20 cash are mentioned by Atkins, bearing on the obverse an orb 
and cross with the letters c jp- within a radiate border, and on 
the reverse the dates 1693 and 1695, respectively, with a wavy 
line above and below. 

1698. In 1698 the Company acquired a grant from Azim, grandson 
of Aurungzeeb of Chutanultee Grovindpore, and Calcutta, 4 and 
the fortifications at the latter place were increased, and called Fort 
William. Four years later the English East India Company and 
London East India Company, between which there had been 
great rivalry during the last few years, came to terms under the 

1 L. c., p. 51, pi. iii, fig. 21. 

2 Vide Garstin's Manual of South Arcot, p. 33. 

3 For further information as to the Porto Novo pagoda, see p. 13. 

4 Notes on Calcutta from Yule and Burnell, op. cit. 

1698. " This avaricious disposition the English plied with presents, which in 

1698 obtained his permission to purchase from the Zemindar the towns 

of Sootanutty, Calcutta, and Goomopore, with their districts extending about 
3 miles along the eastern bank of the river." Orme, repr. iii, 71. 

1702. " The next morning we pass'd by the English factory belonging to the 
old Company, which they call Golgotha, and is a handsome building, to which 
they were adding Stately Warehouses." Voyage to the East Indies by Le Sieur 
Luillier, E.T, 1715, p. 259. 

1726. "The ships which sail thither (to Hngli) first pass by the English 
Lodge in Collecatte, 9 miles (Dutch miles) lower down than ours, and after that 
the French one called Chandarnagor." Valentijn, v, 162. 



23 

title of " The United Company of Merchants of England trading 
to the East Indies/' whose monogram, V.E I.C., is reproduced on 
many of the copper coins of the last, and early part of the present, 
century. The London Company agreed to transfer to the English 
Company, inter atia, their rights to all their several forts and 
factories, within the limits of their Charter, in the East Indies, 
viz., the factories depending on the Presidency of Bombay ; or 
Surat, Swally, Broach, Ahmedhabad, Agra, and Lucknow ; on 
the Malabar coast, the forts and factories of Carwar, Tellicherry, 
Anjengo, and Calicut ; the factories on the coast of Coromandel, 
Gingee and Orixa, depending on the Presidency of Fort St. 
George ; on Fort St. George and the City of Madras, Fort St. 
David, Cuddalore, Porto Novo, Pettipolee, Masulipatam, Mada- 
pollam, and Vizagapatam ; the factories dependent on the Presi- 
dency of Fort William, or Fort William, Ballasore, Chutanultee, 
Cossimbuzar, Dacca, Hughly, Malda, Rajahmahl, and Patna. 

From the Records of the year 1705 it appears that 12,000 in 1705. 
bullion was sent out, to be coined into rupees at Fort St. George, 
and transmitted to Bengal to clear off all demands, and that 
President Pitt arid his Council were censured for having allowed 
the demands of certain native merchants to be paid, with interest, 
without having previously ascertained the frauds, which had been 
committed by them in making up their accounts, and for having 
allowed Mr. Tillard to draw on the Court for the amount, at the 
rate of ten shillings and sixpence, instead of the current rate of 
nine shillings the pagoda. 

In his lleport in 1707 Sir Nicholas Waite, General, Bombay, 1707. 
stated that the Arrack Farms had been placed in the hands of 
Agents, who were to manage them, because, when put up to N sale, 
no person offered to take them ; that the same method had been 
adopted with the tobacco farms, by which a gain had been made, 
this season of 22,328 Xeraphins. Concerning this species of money 
(Xeraphin), which is frequently mentioned in the early transactions 
of the Company, I cannot do better than quote the following 
extracts from " Hobson- Jobson" : 

" Xeraphine, Xerafim, &c. The word in this form represents 
a silver coin, formerly current at Goa and several other Eastern 
ports, in value somewhat less than Is. 6d. It varied in Portuguese 
currency from 300 to 360 re is. But in this case as in so many 
others the term is a corruption applied to a degenerated value. 
The original is the Arabic ax/irafi, (or sharifi, ' noble/) which was 
applied properly to the gold dinar, but was also in India, and still 
is occasionally by natives, applied to the gold mohr. 

1498. " And (the King of Calicut) said that they should tell 
the Captain that if he wished to go he must give him 600 Xarifes, 
and that soon, and that this was the custom of that country, and 
of those who came thither." Reteiro de V. da G., 79. 

1523. "Antonio de Saldanha .... agreed with the said King 
Turuxa (Turun Shah) . . . that the said King .... should pay 
to the King our Lord 10,000 Xarafins more yearly .... in all 
25,000 Xarafins. 

Tombo da India, Subsidies, 79. 

1598. " The chief and most common money (at Goa) is called 
Paxdanne Xeraphin. It is of silver, but of small value. They 



24 

strike it at Goa, and it is marked on one side with the image of 
St. Sebastian, on the other with 3 or 4 arrows in a sheaf. It is 
worth 3 testoons or 300 Reys of Portugal, more or less." 
Linschoten (from French ed., 71). 

1610. "Imprimis of Seraffins Ecberf, which be ten Ritpias a 
piece, there are sixtie Leckes." Ilnickins in Pure/in s i, 217. 

clOlO. " Les pieces d'or son t cherafins a vingt-oinq sols piece." 
Pi/ rani de Laraln, 40. 

c!675. " Coins of Rajapore. Imaginary coins. The 

Pagod is 3J Rupees, 48 Juttals is one Pagod, 10 and | Larees is 
1 Pagod. Zeraphins 2\, I Old Dollar. 

" Coins and weights in Goa . . . The Cm-ado of gold, 12 
Zeraphins. The Zeraphin 5 Tangoes. The Tango, 5 1 r int<'fii<*. 
The Vinteen-) 15 Basrooks, whereof 75 make a Tango, and 60 Rees 
make a Tanf/o." Fryer, 206. 

1727. " Their Soldiers' Pay (at Goa) is very small and ill 
paid. They have but six Xerapheens per month, and two suits of 

Calico, stript or chequered, in a year and a Xerapheen is 

worth about sixteen Pence half Pony Sfrr." A. Him. i, 249. 

In 1707 the Bengal Council sent to Madras a specimen of the 
new Emperor, Bahad'ur Shah's rupee, and desired that all ru] 
coined at the Fort for Bengal might be made to resemble it. 
such coin only would be received or pass in Bengal, whereas at 
the Fort those rupees could not be circulated for fear, as President 
Pitt expressed it, of giving offence to Khan Buksh, the apparent 
King. 

During the reign Queen Anne (1702-1714) copper coins 
were struck, bearing on the obverse the monogram c ^~'- and on 
the reverse the date. The coins of this type, referred to by 
Weyl, bear the dates 1702,1705, and 1709. Copper Dn<ln or 
Faltice (Atkins) were also issued, bearing on the obverse an orb 
and cross inscribed with the letters c ^ c - within a radiate border, 
and on the reverse the date, with a wavy line above and below, 
within a dotted circle. Coins of this type, referred to by Atkins, 
bear the dates 1702, 1703, 1705, 1706 and 1709. A copper Pice, 
bearing on the obverse the English crown, and on the reverse the 
motto [AVSP] i [cio] RKOIS E AS IT AX NOLI, is also attributed by 
Weyl to the reign of Queen Anne. 

1716-17. The Company's presuming to coin money drew down upon 
them, in the reign of William III. the high displeasure of the 
reigning Great Moghul, the Emperor Aurungzeeb, whom they 
had to appease by an explanation. Elphinstoue in his "History 
of India/' Vol. II, pp. 555, 556 mentions that A.D. 1693 Khazi 
Khan was sent to Bombay on this and various alleged delin- 
quencies of the Company, "and that they explained their coining 
money in their own king's name (which was another complaint 
against them) by stating that they had to purchase investments 
at places, where the Moghul's money did not pass." 

Marsden in his 2nd Vol. of Numismata Orientalia, p. 663, in 
his series of the coins of the Moghul Emperors of Hindustan, 
states : "It was in this year of Farakhsirs's reign (fifth year, A.D. 
1716-17) that the English East India Company obtained from 
him (through the agency of Mr. John Surman, factor, and 
Mr. Hamilton, Surgeon, with Khojal Serhad, an Armenian, as 



25 

linguist) the memorable Firman or Edict exempting them from 
the payment of customs, authorising them to coin money of the 
Empire in the Island of Bombay, as had been usual at Chinna- 
patnaiu or Madras, and granting them the exercise of many other 
important privileges." In a note Marsden adds " it is dated the 
fourth day of the second month (1129), and in the fifth year of 
the reign. (Kith January 1716-17)." 

A translation of it will be found in Frazer's " History of 
Nadir Shah," p. 45, and the details of many circumstances respect- 
ing it in Scott's " History of Aurangzeeb's successors," p. 139. 

Auber in his " Eise and Progress of British Power in India," 
vol. I. p. 21, gives many particulars of this grant, which, however, 
Jaffier Khan, the Moghul Governor of India, manifested an indis- 
position to obey ; and, in a despatch from the members of the 
Embassy, dated Conimbu/ar, 15th August 1717, they say " we went 
ourselves to him, and showed him the Fhermand, and demanded 
the free use of the mint as before advised." Jaffier put them off, 
as they say ' with a few sweetening words," and by a despatch of 
the directors, dated 16th February 1721, we find that up to that 
time the matter still remained as it had been ; for then write the 
directors : " By all this we hope you will lay hold of the present 
opportunity to get the grants confirmed. First that of the mint." 
The " present " opportunity was probably the accession of a new 
emperor (Muhammad Shah), and in 1725 they had obtained the 
boon ; for, in a despatch of the Directors, dated 5th December 
1725, they say : " For the reasons by you given we permit you to 
rebuild your Silver Mint." 

In 1717 the Company obtained the island of Diu, 37 townships 
in Bengal, which gave it the command of the river for 10 mile, 
S. of Calcutta, and had certain villages restored to it near Madras, 
which had formerly been given by the Arcot ruler, and resumed. 
The earliest coins of the Company in the Madras Museum which 
bear a date are a thick copper coin bearing on one side the 
monogram of the Company, and on the other the date 1722, and a 
smaller thin coin likewise bearing the monogram, and the date 
1733. Coins of the latter type were also issued by the Dutch 
East India Company, bearing their monogram, V.O.C. ( Vcreinigtc 
Oxiuidische Compagnie), to which a letter was frequently added, 
representing the initial letter of the mint town, e.g., P (Pulicat) 
and N (Negapatam). 

The following copper or lead (Zinn} coins are attributed to the 
reign of George I (1714-1727) : _ 

1. Lead. Double and single Pice 

Obverse. The English Crown with G.R. above, and BOMB below. 

Reverse. The motto AVSPICIO REGIS ET SEJSTATVS ANGIXE. 

[pi. xvi, 8]. 

As regards lead coins of this type (of which the later issues bear 
the dates) struck during the reigns of the Georges, the writer of 
an article in the Numismatic Chronicle remarks ! : "Ruding . . . 
gives engravings of a large lead piece from Bombay, which has no 
date, but, from the letters G.R. on it, he assigns it with probability 
to George I. I have a similar coin with the date 1741, weight 

1 Vol. xviii, p. 76. 



26 

1 oz. 6 grs., and another with date 1771, weight 15 dwts. 1 5 grs, and 
I have seen two pieces of similar type and metal half their size. 
The coins of 1741 came to me from Dublin : that of 1771 was 
found a few years since at Kiusali in repairing a house. These 
three specimens in lead, being of the reigns of George I, II, and 
III, from their succession, would seem to indicate some established 
and continuous purpose. It is unlikely that anything honorary 
would be struck in so worthless and easilj injured metal as lead ; 
yet, as they all bear the authoritative inscription " Auspicio Regis 
et Senatus Angliae," we may presume, in the absence of any infor- 
mation, that they were current coin." 

2. Copper Pice. Without date 

Obverse. The English Crown with O.K. above, and BOMB below. 
Reverse. The motto AVSPICIO KEGIS ET SEXATVS ANGLI/E. 

3. Copper Pice. 1714 

Obverse. The Company's bale mark, and date 1714. 
Reverse. A lion right, within a dotted circle. 
Coins of this type, of three sizes, are contained in the collection 
of the British Museum (pi. xix, 5, d, 7). 

4. Silver three, double, and single Fanams, presumably struck 
for the Madras territories : 

Obverse. Orb and cross inscribed, with the letters C j, c - within a 
dotted circle. 

Reverse. An undecipherable Indian inscription within a dotted 
circle. 

[pl.jxix, 1, 2]. 

5. Copper coins with device and legends similar to No. 4. 

[pi. xix, 3]. 

" In 1725," says Sir Walter Elliot, 1 " the attention of the factory 
was attracted to the coinage of the rupee. It appears that the 
profits gained at the Madras mint on the coinage of silver had 
encouraged the issue at the native mints at Arcot, St. Thome, and 
Covelong, of rupees inferior in standard, but of the same nominal 
value, so as to divert the flow of bullion from the Company's mint 
to their own. This led to stringent regulations prohibiting the 
export of bullion from the Factory, and to a reduction of the 
mint charges." On this subject Mr. Wheeler says 2 : " The first 
important matter which received the attention of Governor Macrae 
was that of the coinage of rupees at the Madras mint. It seems 
that the Native chiefs had awakened to the profit derived by the 
Madras Government from the coinage of rupees ; and accordingly 
they had not only set up mints of their own, but, about this time, 
they contrived to make more rupees out of the same quantity of 
silver, than were made by the Company. For instance out of 
every hundred ounces of silver, the mints at St. Thome and Arcot 
turned out to the merchant Rupees 266, annas 14 ; whilst the mint 
in Fort St. George only turned out Rupees 257, annas 7. Thus 
the merchant obtained nine rupees seven annas more for his 
hundred ounces of silver at St. Thome and Arcot than he could 

1 Op. cit., p. 145. 2 Op. cit., vol. ii., pp. 38792. 



27 

obtain at Fort St. George. In other words the Madras rupee was 
2 per cent, dearer than the rupee of Arcot or of St. Thome. The 
consequence was that the merchants preferred coining their silver 
at the latter mints ; and the Company found its custom decreasing. 
Accordingly Governor Macrae directed Messrs. Pitt, Benyon and 

Emmerson to enquire into the whole matter It will 

be seen by the following resolution that Governor Macrae endea- 
voured to put matters to rights ; 1st by prohibiting the export 
of silver from the Company's bounds, and thus compelling the mer- 
chants to coin their silver at Port St. George ; 2nd by lowering 
the Company's custom | per cent, and the mint charges | per 
cent., or altogether 10 rupees per thousand. Henceforth then the 
custom and charges at Madras would be 30 rupees per thousand ; 
whilst the custom and charges at St. Thome, Arcot, and Covelong 
would be nominally 21 rupees per thousand, but actually 31 
rupees 11 annas per thousand. The original entry will serve to 
render the subject more intelligible. 

"Monday, 8th March 1725. Messrs. Pitt, Benyon and 
Emmerson deliver in a report of the coinage, together with an 
account of the charges and customs collected at our mint, and 
those in the country ; as likewise an account of the produce of a 
hundred ounces of silver of the fineness of the rupee in our and 
St. Thome" mints. 

" This matter being fully debated, it was upon the whole 
agreed that no silver except rupees shall be permitted to be 
exported to any part of the coast of Coromandel under penalty of 
confiscation, half to the informer and half to .the Company ; and 
the Secretary do give notice hereof at all the public places in the 
town. 

" As by the calculates and reports abovementioned, it appears 
that our rupee is two per cent, dearer to the merchants than the 
St. Thome and Arcot rupee, it was further argued that we ought 
to find out some method to lessen the charge of coinage, that so 
we may bring it nearer to a par with the country coin ; and it 
appearing that the Brahmins actually indisburse 11 1 rupees per 
thousand, and that they must have something besides for their 
trouble, it was plain their custom could not be reduced above a 
| per cent., which not being sufficient, it was agreed to strike off 
a half per cent, likewise from the custom paid the Company ; which 
it is hoped will be approved by the Honorable Court of Directors 
for the following reasons : 

" First, that the present charge of coinage being 4 per cent, 
in our mint, and but 21 per thousand in the St. Thome mint, 
nobody will bring any silver to us, but on the contrary carry it 
away thither ; but that when our custom is reduced to three per 
cent., the difference will be so much less that probably we may 
have the greatest part of the coinage return to us, especially since 
our rupee is in greater esteem in the country than theirs. 

" Secondly, that we shall receive orders from Europe in two 
years ; and if our Honorable Masters shall disapprove hereof, 
which we cannot believe they will, it may be laid on again. 

"Thirdly, that at present the revenue is sunk to ulmo.st 
nothing, so that should no more silver be coined here tlriu has 



28 

been for sometime past, the difference will be very inconsiderable ; 
whereas should we hereby regain the coinage it will be very 
apparently advantageous to the Company. 

"Lastly, that the Company will save \ per cent, in the coinage 
of their own silver ; which, as we coin one-third generally of what 
goes down to the Bay, will very near if not over compensate for 
the reduction of the custom on other silver. 

These being the causes why it is thought necessary to lessen 
the charge of the coinage, it was recommended to the President 
to talk with the mint Brahmins, and bring them to an agreement 
for lowering the charge agreeable to the above resolve, which he 
accordingly promised." 

To the time of George II, who reigned from 1727 to 1760, the 
following copper and lead coins must be referred : 

1 . Copper double Pice. 

Obverse. The English crown, with G.K. above, and BOMB below. 
Reverse. The motto AVSPICIO REGIS ET SKNATVS ANGLIJS and the 
date (pi. xix, 8.) 

2. Copper Pice 

Obverse. The English Crown, with G.R. above, and BOMB and the 
date below. 

Reverse. The Bale mark of the Companj-. 

3. Copper half Pice with device and legends similar to No. 2. 

4. Copper quarter Pice of a similar type, but without the date, 
are referred to by Atkins. 

5. Copper Pice ( Wet/fj 
Obverse. The Company's shield. 
everse. The date 1742 (pi. xx, 1, 2.) 

6. Copper Pice. (Weyf) 
Obverse. The Company's shield. 
Reverse. MON. BOMB 1745 (?;. 

7. Copper Pice, bearing the Company's shield on both obverse 
and reverse. 

8. Copper Cash. 

Obverse. The Bale mark of the Company. 
Reverse. The date (pi. i, 2, 4.) 

The earliest date on coins of this type in the Madras Museum 
is 1733. 

9. Copper Dudu or Falucc (Atkins) 

Obverse. Orb and cross inscribed with the letters c ^- within a 
radiate border. 

Reverse. The date, with a wavy line above and below, within a 
beaded circle. [pi. i, 6, 7, 8]. 

10. Copper half Faluce of the same type as No. 9. 



29 

11. Lead double Pice. 

Obverse. The English crown, with o.R. above, and BOMB below. 
Reverse. The motto AVSPICIO REGIS ET SEXATVS AXGLIJE, and the 
date. [pi. xvi, 8.] 

12. Lead Pice of the same type as No. 11. 

The following extract from the notice of a Meeting held on 1730. 
Saturday, 5th September 1730, throws light on the origin of the 
" M. Pagoda." " At that Meeting the President observing to the 
Board what is recommended in the last general letter concerning 
the badness of pagodas, desires this affair may now be taken 
into consideration, and that the Assay Master may be sent for to 
assist with his advice. Mr. Westoii was accordingly called in, 
and acquaints us that the pagodas grow daily worse ; and that 
some he tried in May last were no better than eighty-three and 
a half touch ; whereas they ought to be of the value of the 
Negapatam pagodas, which is eighty-five and three- quarters. 
The Board taking into consideration the danger the Company's 
estate is in, and that commerce must inevitably suffer if this un- 
certain money circulates longer unsuspected ; and that, though 
we defer taking proper measures to prevent this abuse at present, 
at last there will be an absolute necessity to do it (may be, when 
it will give a much greater shock to trade) ; and likewise no time 
can be so proper as when the Company's cash is so low as now 
by the large draught sent to the Bay by the " Cadogan." "We 
therefore come to the following resolution, in order to secure the 
Company's estate, which we hope will be sufficient to open the 
eyes of everybody else, who must otherwise be undone by their 
credulity. 

" That a new pagoda be coined of equal weight and fineness 
with the Negapatam pagoda, and with the same stamp, only dis- 
tinguished with the letter M on each side the image ; which shall 
be current in all branches of the Company's business, and that no 
other sort shall be paid or received, except in the Northern invest- 
ments, where the old Madras pagoda is only current. But as this 
resolution cannot be put in practice till we have a supply of gold 
from China and elsewhere to make a circulation, we declare that 
this order of the Board shall not be in full force till the First of 
May ensuing ; when we are in hopes the Eastern ships will be 
returned, and the merchants have sufficient time to coin the gold 
they purchase into the abovesaid specie ; which were we to insist 
upon before a supply arrives, they must be obliged to melt down 
the present coins, and be considerable losers in giving it a new 
stamp." 

" From these extracts," says Sir Walter Elliot, 1 " compared, 
with the information of the Dewan*, it appears that these Vaishnava 
/tuns were struck at the same time by the English, the Portuguese, 
and perhaps the Dutch, as well as by the Nawdbs of Arcot, and 
though bearing the same name, were not confined to the same 
mints. Thus the Star, Kuruki and Porto Novo were struck 
equally at the factory and the Nawab's mints, the latter being 

I Op. cit., p. 145. 



30 

situate, according to the Factory records, at Arcot, St. Thome* 
and Covelong, but according to the Dewiin at Arcot, Tiruvamur, 
and Porto Novo. By St. Thome and Covelong are probably 
meant the obscure village of Tiruvamur. The Porto Noro hints 
I apprehend to have been first produced by the Europeans at 
that place, whence it came to be also designated as Feringhipet. 
When the influence of the Portuguese on the Coromandel coast 
was circumscribed by the Dutch and the Muhammadans, the mint 
appears to have passed into the hands of the Nawab, who con- 
tinued to issue hunts under the name of Porto Noro, Feringhipet, 
Negapatam (where had also been a Portuguese Factory), and 
afterwards of Scot pagodas. Buchanan found in 18oO that at 
Palghat " the accounts were kept in Ferwgy or Porto JKovo pagodas 
or varahuns ; pudamt-ni l commonly called vir raya fanams, and 
cash, " and that there was a profit in bringing Porto Noco pagodas 
from Dharapuram in Coirnbatore to Palghat, and carrying back 
vir ray a fanams." 

1742. The following letter from Mr. Sidney Foxall, dated Fort St. 

George, 16th August 1742, furnishes us with a description of the 
process employed in the coinage of money in the Madras Mint at 
that time : 

" Honorable Sir and Sirs, 

" It is a great concern to me to observe by an extract of the 
General Letter from England, that the Honorable Company should 
have the least shadow of reason to suspect that I have been any 
way negligent in my duty towards them ; for I do assure your 
Honors, that I have at all times used my utmost care and diligence, 
as much as in me lay, to keep the minters to their weight and 
standard in all the moneys that have been coined since my time ; 
and that I never discovered any attempt to adulterate the coin, 
but in the affair of Bangum with which I took care to acquaint 
this Honorable Board. 

" The methods of coinage in the Tower of London differ 
much from what is used here ; it being impossible to adulterate 
the gold and silver there after the Assay Master has tried them, 
being cast into bars, before the assays are taken. Those bars 
afterwards run through flatting mills, the money cut out with an 
engine, milled and stamped,, but no more melted. The constant 
method here has been, first to melt the gold or silver, and break 
it into small grains or powder ; the muster is taken by the Assay 
Master; after which (if of the proper standard), the grains or 
powder is distributed among a great number of coolies in several 
work-houses or godowns : who weigh every rupee and pagoda 
separate, and afterwards deliver them to other coolies to melt. 
Different persons receive them to flat, and others to stamp. By 
which method of working, your Honors must be very sensible, 
that, if it was not for some confidence which must be put in the 
undertakers, and the fear of punishment in such as should be 
detected, my utmost care and vigilance could not prevent from 
adulterations. The only check upon them, and what I frequently 

1 Pudameni, signifying new coinage, so called in contra-distinction to the 
palaya mani or ancient coina|fe. 



31 

make use of after the first trial, is to take muster of their moneys 
in their presence, to assay after it is fiuished, to let them see I 
have a watchful eye over them. 

" What I have already said, with the present flourishing state 
of the mint, will I humbly hope induce my Honorable Masters to 
believe that I have not been any way negligent in my duty 
hitherto, and shall take my utmost care that they have no cause of 
complaint in future. 

"lam, 

" Honorable Sir and Sirs, 

" Your most obedient and humble Servant, 

" SIDNEY FOXALL " 

Writing in 1794 concerning the method employed in coming 
money at the Bombay Mint at that time Lieutenant Moor says : l 
" Tippoo, from his coins being regularly stricken and milled, must 
have a regular die, which is an apparatus unknown in other parts 
of India. In Bombay there is no mechanical process either for 
ascertaining the value of the piece, or of giving it the impres- 
sion. The manner is as follows : the metal is brought to the 
mint in bars the size of the little finger, where a number of persons 
seated on the ground provided with scales and weights, a hammer, 
and an instrument between a chissel and a punch : before each 
man's birth is fixed a stone by way of anvil. The bars are cut 
into pieces, by guess, and if, on weighing, any deficiency is 
found, a little particle is punched into the intended rupee ; if too 
heavy, a piece is cut off, and so until the exact quantity remains. 
These pieces are then taken to a second person, whose whole 
apparatus consists of a hammer and a stone anvil, and he batters 
them into something of a round shape, about seven- eighths of an 
inch diameter, and one-eighth thick ; when they are ready for the 
impression. The die is composed of two pieces, one inserted 
firmly into the ground, the other, about eight inches long, is held 
in the right hand of the operator, who squatting on his heels (the 
posture in which all mechanics and artists work ; the posture, in- 
deed, in which every thing is done in India, for if a man has a 
dram given him, he finds it convenient to squat upon his heels to 
drink it), fills his left hand with the intended coins, which he 
with inconceivable quickness slips upon the fixed die with his 
thumb and middle finger, with his forefinger as dexterously re- 
moving them when his assistant, a second man with a mall, has 
given it the impression, which he does as rapidly as he can raise, 
and strike with the mall on the die held in the right hand of the 
coiner. The diameter of the die is about an inch and a half, in- 
scribed with the Great Moghul's names, titles, date of the Hejra, 
his reign, &c., but as the coins are not so large, they do not, 
consequently, receive all, nor the same impression. The rupee is 
then sent to the treasury, ready for currency, as no milling, or any 
farther process is thought necessary." 

In 1742 a grant of liberty to coin Arcot rupees was given to 
the Company, and the following is a translation of a Sunnud under 

1 Narrative of Little'a Detachment, App. note ii, pp. 499, 500. 



32 

the seal of Nabob Sadutalla Khan Bahadur, Subah of Arcot, dated 
the 4th November 1742 : 

" To the Mutasadar of tlie country of Chennapatnam and 
Sircar of Tn'ppasoor, belonging to the Carnatic of Golcondah and 
to their successors. 

" Be it known unto all men that from the beginning of the year 
Fusly 1152, I have ordered a mint to be erected to coin pago- 
das and rupees in Chindadrepettah, belonging to Chinnapatnam ; 
and the same to be under the power of Mr. Benyon, Governor of 
Chennapatnam, for the Company. Wherefore do you let the said 
Governor have and enjoy for the Company all the customs that 
may arise in the said mint. Observe this as a strict taukeed and 
perform it accordingly. Dated Ramazan 17th in the 25th year of 
the reign of the Great Mogul Mahomed Shah." 

Translation of the contents /cr/tten on the back of the foregoing 
Sunniid. " Ordered that a mint may be erected in Chindadree- 
pettah belonging to Chinnapatnam for coining pagodas and nip- 
and it may be commenced from the beginning of the year Fusly 
1152, and to be under the power of Mr. Benyon, Governor of 
Chennapatnam, for the Company. 

" His Excellency's order by his handwriting is to draw a 
Sunnud to the following purpose : 

" ' That Andiappah Naick, Dubash of the Governor of Chenna- 
patnam, represented that the Governor desires liberty to erect a 
mint in Chindadreepettah belonging to Chennapatnam for coining 
pagodas, rupees, &c., and that we should free them from paying 
us the customs arising thereby, and let the same be applied to 
the said Governor for the Company ; a sunnud is granted for 
that purpose." 

Entered in the Book 19th Moon Ramazan, in the 25th year of 
the reign of the Great Mogul Mahomed Shah, which is the 4th 
November 1742. 

In 1746 a French fleet, commanded by La Bourdonnais 
arrived off Madras, which surrendered, but was restored to the 
English by the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle two years later. 

In 1756 Siraj-ad-daula (Surajah Dowlah), then a youth of 
only eighteen years, marched upon and took Calcutta with a 
large army, but the city was retaken by Clive and Watson at 
the beginning of the following year. " The establishment of an 
independent coinage in Bengal," says Ruding, 1 " was of later 
date than at the other presidencies. For some time subsequently to 
their purchase of the zemindary of Calcutta, the only indulgence 
granted to the Company was the privilege of having their bullion 
coined at the mints of the Nawab of Bengal, which were at Patna, 
Dacca, and Murshedabad. After the capture of Calcutta a right 
to establish a mint of their own was one of the stipulations in the 
treaty with Suraj-ad-Doula, dated 7th February 1757." 

In 1758 Clive was appointed by the Court of Directors the first 
Governor of all the Company's settlements in Bengal. After a 
war, which continued fitfully for many years, Colonel (afterwards 
Sir Eyre) Coote won the decisive victory of Wandewash over the 

1 Op. cit., vol. ii., p. 418. 



33 

French General Lally and invested Pondicherry, which capitu- 
lated in 1761. ! 

In the year 1760 George III came to the throne. Many of 1760. 
the coins struck during his long reign (1760-1820) are still 
met with in large numbers in the bazaars, but the following copper 
and lead coins are worthy of special reference on account of 
their scarceness : 

1. Copper Double and Single Pice. 

Obverse: The English crown, . with G.R. above, and BOMB 

aiid the date below. 
Reverse : The Bale Mark of the Company, (pi. xv, 1). 

2. Copper half Pice. Of the same type as No. 1. 

3. Bombay Pice. 

Obverse : The Bale Mark of the Company. 
Reverse: 1 PICE BOMBAY, and the date (1773 and 1777). 
(pi. xv, 3). 

4. Copper half Pice. 

Obverse : The Bale Mark of the Company. 
Reverse : | (pi. xix, 9). 

5. Lead double Pice. 

Obverse : The English crown, with O.K. above, and BOMB 

below. 
Reverse : The motto AVSPICIO REGIS EX SENATVS ANGLIC, and 

the date. 

6. Lead Pice. Of the same type as No. 5. 

7. Lead half Pico. 

Obverse : The Bale Mark of the Company. 
Reverse : $ PICE. (pi. xix, 10). 

8. Lead quarter Pice. Of the same type as No. 7, but with 
the value j. 

9. Copper quarter Pice. 

Obverse: C.G. 1813. 
Reierse : PI CE. 

(pi. xx, 3). 

10. Copper. Two Annas. 

Obverse : PATNA POST TWO ANNAS and the date. 
Reverse : Value of the coin in Persian. 

11. Copper. One Anna. 

Same as No. 10, except the value ONE ANNA. 
(pi. xx, 8). 

1 Notes on Pondicherry from Yule and Burnell, op. cit. 

" Pondicherry. This name of what is now the chief French settlement in 
India, is Pudu-ch'clieri, 'New Town,' more correctly Pudu-vai, C.P. 

Brown however says it is Pudi-cheru, ' New Tank." The natives sometimes 
write it Phulcheri." 

1780. " An English officer of rank, General Coote, who was unequalled among 
his compeers in ability and experience in war, and who had frequently fought 
with the French of Phoolcheri in the Karnatik, and had as often gained the 
victory over them " H. ob. Hyder Naik, 413. 

B 



34 

1763. ^ n the 15th of January 1763 Major Carnac, who commanded 
the English forces, marched against the prince, Shah Alum, and 
attacked and beat him. " He pursued the prince very closely for 
some days, till the latter found himself so straightened, that he 
offered to throw himself upon the protection of the English, which 
was accepted, and on the 8th of February he joined the English 
camp, and proceeded with them to Patna. The province of 
Allahabad, including the district of Corah, estimated at the yearly 
revenue of twenty-two lacks of rupees, was assigned to him in 
guarantee by the Company ; and, in addition, to render his estab- 
lishment splendid, the British Governor, in behalf of the Com- 
pany, agreed to pay into his Majesty's treasury the annual sum 
of twenty-six lacks of rupees from the revenues of Bengal." 1 

Describing a rupee of Shah Alum struck in 1176 (A.D 1762-3), 
and bearing on one side the inscription 

f ... 



" struck at Calcutta in the 4th year of the auspicious reign," 
Marsden says : 2 " This rupih was evidently struck at the period 
when Shah Alum, after the defeat of his army, consented to place 
himself under the protection of the English Government, and to 
receive an assignment of certain revenues for his support. It is 
perhaps the earliest that expresses the name of Calcutta, and its 
weight accords with the regulated standard. The work is credit- 
able to the new mint." 

1765. ^ n 17(55 it was agreed by the articles of a Treaty and Agree- 

ment concluded between the Governor and Council of Fort St. 
William on the part of the English East India Company and 
the Nabob Nudjum ul Dowla " that the books of the Circar shall 
always be kept, and the business conducted at Moorshedabad, and 
that shall as heretofore be the seat of my government, and wherever 
I (Nabob Nudjum ul Dowla) am, I consent that an English 
gentleman shall reside with me to transact all affairs between me 
and the Company, and that a person of high rank shall also reside 
on my part at Calcutta to negotiate with the Governor and 
Council. 

" I will cause the rupees, coined in Calcutta, to pass in every 
respect equal to the Siccas 3 of Moorshedabad, without any de- 
duction of Batta ; and whosoever shall demand Batta shall be 
punished. The annual loss on coinage, by the fall of Batta, on 
the issuing of the new Siccas, is a very heavy grievance to the 
country ; and after mature consideration, I will, in concert with 
the Governor and Council, pursue whatever may appear the best 
method for remedying it." 

1 Francklin's History of the Reign of Shah Alum, p. 25. 

2 Numismat. Orient., 1825, pt. ii, p. 677 

3 Note on the word Sicca from Yule and Burnell, op. cit. 

" The term Sicca (sikkha, from Arab, sikka, ' a coming die,' and ' coined 
money," whence I', sikka zadan to coin) ........ " 

1683. " Having received 25,000 rupees Siccas for Rajamaul." Hedges, MS., 
April 4. 

1705. " Les roupies Sicca valent a Bcnpale 39 sols." Lvillier. 255. 

1779. " In the 2nd Term, 1779, on Saturday, March 6th, 'Judgment was pro- 
nounced for the plaintiff. Damages fifty thousand Sicca rupees." 



35 

On the 12th of August 1765, the Emperor Shah Alum granted 
to the Company " the JDewanee of the provinces of Bengal, Behar 
and Orissa as a free gift and Ulturngau, without the association 
of any other person, and with an exemption from the payment of 
the customs of the Dewanee, which used to be paid by the Court 



In 1765 pattern gold mohurs, half, and quarter mohurs, were 
struck, bearing on the obverse a shield and the inscription ENG- 
LISH EAST INDIA COMPANY, and on the reverse the inscription 
BOMBAY 17t>5. These pattern pieces (pi. xx, 4) I have seen in 
the collections of the British Museum and Mr. H. Montagu. 
In 1770 a pattern gold mohur was struck, bearing on the obverse 
the inscription BOMBAY 1770 15 RUPS, and on the reverse a Persian 
inscription, (pi. xx, 5.) 

In 1767 commenced the first of the Mysore wars, of which the 1767. 
last terminated with the capture of Seringapatam and death of 
Tippoo Sultan in 1799. The interesting fact is mentioned by 
Lieutenant Moor l with reference to a Bombay half pice coined 
in England for the use of the island, on which is the Honorable 
Company's mark, that " this mark is put upon everything that the 
Company send to India, and Tippoo, seeing it on their musquets, 
has imitated it on his ; and on the butt, lock, barrel, and bayonet, 
is the mark, in which, instead of V.E.I. c , United East India Com- 
pany, we see Hi/dr, Tippoo's father's name, in Persian. He put it 
also upon his cannon." 

In his work " The principles of money applied to the present 
state of the coin of Bengal," Sir James Steuart says : " It has been 
observed that this coin, called gold mohurs, had been formerly 
coined at Delhi, of the same weight and fineness with the Sicca 
rupee of Bengal and other countries of Hindustan ; but that they 

passed conventionally, having no legal denomination. In 1766 

it was proposed as an expedient for augmenting the currency of 

specie to make a coinage of gold , and the directors of this 

operation, pitching upon fifteen Arcot rupees as the value of one 
gold mohur, instead of estimating the value of these fifteen Arcot 
rupees by the fine metal contained in them, estimated them by 
their current value, which was above the proportion of their 
intrinsic worth. Not satisfied with this first deviation from 
principles, they added to the mohur (already over-rated in its 
proportion to the fifteen silver Arcot rupees) no less than 8 
per cent, extra denomination, entirely arbitrary. So when this 
gold currency came abroad, it proved to be no less than 17 per 
cent, worse in payments than silver rupees of Bengal, Madras,, 
Bombay, and Surat. 

" The people of that country (Bengal) had been so long ac- 
customed to silver coin, that they never would, except when forced 
to it, receive the mohurs in payment. So the Company was 
obliged to make a new regulation in 1769, little better than the 
former. At last the gold currency fell altogether to many per 
cent, below its intrinsic value." 



1 Narrative of Little's Detachment. App. p. 478, pi. ii, 14, 15. 



36 

In hi8 ' Voyages to the East Indies ' I. Splinter Stavorninus, 
Rear Admiral in the service of the States General, says 1 of the 
coinage of Bengal, which presidency he visited between the years 
1768 and 1771 : "The only current coins in Bengal, and the 
whole extent of Indostan, are gold and silver rupees. All 
foreign gold and silver, whether coined or in bullion, is carried 
to the mint, and transformed into rupees, which are stamped with 
Persian letters instead of any portrait or arms. They decrease 
every year in value, and at the end of nine years the sicca 
rupees are taken at the same rate as Arcot rupees. "When the 
rupees first come from the mint, they are called sicca rupees of 
the first year. Those which are coined at Moorshedabad are the 
current coin in which the trade of the Company is carried on, and 
by which all the other rupees in circulation here are reduced. It 
is divided into sixteen annas ; its intrinsic value in Dutch money 
is one gilder, four stivers and a half, and it is taken in the 
Company's books at twenty-five stivers ; but in Indian currency at 
thirty-one stivers and a half, for which it is current at Hougly. 
It is the money of account, according to which the value of 
the other rupees is calculated at a discount or agio, which is 
called batta, of from six to twelve per cent., which undergoes 
continual fluctuations, by the management of the money-changers. 
The Arcot rupees, which are coined by the English at Arcot, 
and by the French at Pondicherry, go for thirty stivers, yet the last 
are reckoned from one to three per cent, better than the former. 

" The gold rupee, which is called mohur, is worth fifteen silver 
sicca rupees. 

" Halves, fourths, eighths, and sixteenths of rupees are likewise 
coined ; the last, as above said, are called annas. 

" Copper coin is not seen in Bengal. For change they make 
use of the small sea-shells called cowries, 2 eighty of which make 
a poni, and sixty or sixty-five ponis, accordiug as there are 
few or many cowries in the country, make a rupee. They come 
from the Maldive Islands. The money-changers sit upon all the 
bazars with quantities of them to furnish the lower orders with 
change for the purchase of necessaries. One hundred thousand 
rupees make what is called a lack, and one hundred lacks or ten 
millions of rupees a crore." 

As regards the coinage current at Surat Stavorninus says : 3 
" The coins that are current here are of gold, silver, and copper. 



1 Ed. London, 1798, vol. i, p. 460. 

2 Note on cowries from Yule and Burnell, op. cit. 

1753. " Our Honorable Masters having expressly directed ten tons of cowries 
to be laden in each of their ships homeward bound, we ordered the Secretary to 
prepare a protest against Captain Cooke for refusing to take any on board the 
Admiral Vernon." M. Long. 41. 

1780. " We are informed that a copper coinage is now on the carpet it 

will be of the greatest use to the public, and will totally abolish the trade of 
cowries, which for a long time has formed so extensive a field for deception and 
fraud." Hicky' s Bengal Gazette. 

1803. " I will continue to pay without demur, to the said Government, as 
my annual pesknsh or tribute 12,000 kahuns of cowries in three instalments aa 
specified herein below." Treaty Engagement by the Rajah of Kitta Keonghur, a 
tributary subordinate to Cuttack, 16th December 1803. 

3 Op cit., vol. iii, p. 8. 



37 

The coin of gold of the country is the vt.ohur, which is gold of 
twenty-three carat ; it goes here for fifteen silver rupees, though 
its value is not constantly the same, but is settled according as 
gold is at a high or at a low price. All foreign gold coins are 
only taken according to their weight and intrinsic value. 

" Ducats are likewise met with here, but no one is obliged to 
receive them in payment contrary to his inclination ; they are 
distinguished into three sorts : the Venetian ducats, which are 
worth from 4| to 4-^ rupees, or f. 6-7 to 8 stivers ; all other 
European ducats, to which they give the appellation of images, 
and which are current at from 4| to 4 T 3 ^ rupees, or f. 6-3 to 5 
stivers; and the third or last sort, those of Constantinople, or 
Stambouli, among which are comprehended all other Turkish, 
Arabian, and Persian ducats, and which go at from 3J to 3-}! 
rupees, or f. 5-16 to 18 stivers. The value of these coins is 
lowered or enhanced in proportion as more or less gold is imported. 

" The silver rupee is the standard coin of the country, the 
only one which is struck in the empire of Hindostan, and is 
current all over it ; its real value in Dutch money is scarcely four 
and twenty stivers, but here, among the Europeans, it is calculated 
at thirty stivers ; every rupee contains sixteen annas, but the 
calculation })y annas is not so common here as in Bengal; the 
fractious of rupees are generally settled by pice, which is the only 
copper coin here, and of which more or less go to a rupee in 
proportion as copper is at a low or at a high price ; when I was 
at Surat, sixty-four pice were given for a rupee ; it is said that 
there are also leaden pice, but I saw none of them. 

" In the same way as cowries are made use of in Bengal, as the 
lowest medium of exchange, almonds, which are called badams, are 
employed for that purpose here ; the comparative value whereof 
is, as may easily be conceived, more liable to variation than any 
other representative medium. 

" No other money is current here, and all foreign coins are 
taken according to their weight and assay ; but the Mexican dol- 
lars, or pieces .of eight, known among the natives by the appel- 
lation of raal lakria, must, if weight, contain seventy-three tcaals : 
their value is uncertain, running from f. 318 to f. 324 per 
hundred, and some times, but seldom, a little higher." 

A double rupee, bearing the date ^ (A.D. 1780), is described 
by Marsden 1 bearing on the obverse the inscription 



and on the reverse the inscription 



" Struck at Mechli-pattan (Hasulipatam) in the 21st year of 
the auspicious reign," concerning which he says : " This extra- 
ordinary coin presents a still more unaccountable anomaly than 
any that has yet been noticed in the produce of the Anglo-Indian 
Mint. The numeral characters for the year 1 194 are distinct, and, 
with due regard to consistency, it is of the 21st year of the reign, 
which can be no other than that of Shah Alum, But it bears the 

1 Numismat. Orient., 1825, part ii, p. 685. 



38 

name (and his only) of Alnrn-gir ; being either that of his father, 
who reigned not quite six years, and was put to death in 1173, 
or of the great Aureng-zeb, who died in 1118. Whether this 
discreditable anachronism proceeded from inattention or design, 
it would now be difficult to ascertain. The piece is a well 
executed double rupih, conied at a city within the English jurisdic- 
1792-4. tion on the Coast of Coromandel, usually named Masulipatam. " 

In the years 1792 4 the following proof copper coins, which 
never came into circulation, were struck : 

1 and 2. Pice and Half Pice. 

Obverse : 'The Bale mark of the Company with the date 1792 
below. 

Reverse : A balance with the word J-" 5 between the scales. 
These coins are hexagonal in shape. 

3. Obverse and Reverse : The Persian legend ^ir rV/ ~ 
c_j~* iu the centre within a thick rim incused ENGLISH EAST INDIA 
COMPANY. 

The edge is inscribed with the legend ENGLISH UNITED EA.ST 

INDIA COMPANY. (pi. XX, 6). 

4. Obverse : The crest of the Company with the value 48 TO 
ONE RUPEE and the motto AUSPICIO REGIS ET SENATVS ANGLI.E 
incused upon a thick rim. 

Reverse : Similar to Xo. 3. 

No. 5. Obcerte : The Bale mark of the Company with the date 
1794 below. 

Reverse : *-)"** \ y f c=M/ ^- without a thick rim, or English 
legend. 

1793. In 1793 a regulation was passed, by which the gold and 

silver coin in Bengal, Behar, and Orissa -was reformed, and the 
currency of any gold or silver coin in those provinces, but the 
nineteenth sun gold mohur, and their respective division into halves 
and quarters was prohibited. 

In this regulation it is stated that " upon the mints at Patna, 
Dacca, and Moorshedabad being withdrawn soon after the com- 
mencement of the Company's administration, the proprietors and 
farmers of land in the interior parts of the country, who were 
bound by their engagements to pay the public revenue in sicca 
rupees, experienced considerable difficulty in obtaining those rupees 
from the coinage of them being confined to Calcutta, at which 
place the only mint that remained in the provinces was established ; 
they were^in consequence, compelled to collect the rents from the 
ryots in the species of sonaut, or other old rupees, of which there 
happened to be the greatest number in their respective districts, 
and which they were permitted to pay into the public treasuries 
at a fixed exchange. In consequence of the ryots being re- 
quired to pay their rent in a particular sort of rupee, they of 
course demanded it from the manufacturers in payment for 
their grain or raw materials ; whilst the manufacturers, actuated 
by similar principles with the ryots, required the same species of 
rupee from the traders who came to purchase their cloth or other 
commodities. The various sorts of old rupees, accordingly, soon 



39 

became the established currency of particular districts ; and, as a 
necessary consequence, the value of each rupee was enhanced in the 
district in which it was current, from being in demand for all 
transactions. As a further consequence, every other sort of rupees 
brought into the district was rejected, from being a different 
measure of value from that by which the inhabitants had become 
accustomed to estimate their property ; or, if it was received, a 
discount was exacted upon it, equal to what the receiver would have 
been obliged to pay upon exchanging it at the house of a shroff 
for the rupee current in the district, or to allow upon passing it 
in payment to any other individual. Thus if a sicca rupee of the 
nineteenth sun, which is intrinsically worth about seven per cent, 
more than an Arcot, was offered in payment in the Dacca Pro- 
vince, it was either refused, or received nearly at the same value 
as an Arcot ; whilst the holders of Arcots, or other sorts of 
rupees, who carried them into districts in which they were not 

current were subject to similar loss The money-changers are 

the only description of people who derive any benefit from this dis- 
ordered state of the coin. The loss falls upon Government and 
the public at. large, and must be perpetual, unless the various old 
and counterfeit rupees now current in the different parts of the 
country can be thrown out of circulation, and one species of 
rupee made the general standard measure of value in all trans- 
actions between individuals and between Government and its 
subjects. The sicca rupee of the nineteenth sun is the established 
coin of the country, and the rupee in which the public revenues are 
payable. It was with a view to render it the general measure of 
value, that Government determined, in the year 1773, that all 
rupees coined in future should bear the impression of the nine- 
teenth sun or year of reign of the Shah Alum, and no other 
species of rupee (with the exception of some Arcots) has since been 
coined in the Calcutta Mint. The rupees of the eleventh, twelfth, 
and fifteenth sun were indeed directed to be considered current 
equally with the nineteenth sun sicca rupee ; but this was a tem- 
porary measure, -intended to be continued in force only until there 
should be a sufficiency of the nineteenth sun sicca rupee intro- 
duced into circulation The preceding remarks evince, that it 

is in the interest of individuals of every description, except the 
money-changers, to co-operate with the Government to render the 
nineteenth sun sicca rupee generally current, and the standard of 
value throughout the country. A mong the measures considered 
necessary to effect this important object, the following were the 
principal : First, to direct the officers employed in the provision of 
the investment, and manufacture of salt, and all commercial 
transactions of the Company, to make their agreements with indi- 
viduals for sicca rupees of the nineteenth sun ...Secondly, to 

oblige individuals to estimate their property by the nineteenth 

sun sicca rupee Thirdly, to prohibit the receipt of any 

rupees, excepting siccas of the nineteenth sun, at the public 

treasuries after tbe date above alluded to Fourthly, to 

establish mints at the cities of Patna, Dacca, and Moorshedabad, 

to coin precisely the same rupee as that struck at Calcutta 

By the operation of these rules the various sorts of old and light 



40 

rupees must, in course of time, fall to their intrinsic worth com- 
pared Avitli the sicca of the nineteenth sun, as they will produce 
no more in the mint, and to which they will necessarily be brought 
to be converted into siccas, as they will be nowhere passable or 
in demand as coin, from being nowhere a measure of value. The 
rules by which the gold coin has been regulated have been pro- 
ductive of evils, similar to those which have prevailed with regard 
to the silver coin. Under the native administration, and until the 
year 1766 the gold mohur was not considered as a legal tender of 
payment in any public or private transaction, nor was the number 
of rupees for which it was to pass current ever fixed by the 
Government. It was struck for the convenience of individuals, and 
the value of it in the markets fluctuated like other commodities, 
silver being the metal which was the general measure of value 
throughout the country. In the year 1766, the value of the gold 
coin with respect to the silver was first fixed, and the former coin 
declared a legal tender of payment. A. gold mohur was struck and 
ordered to pass for fourteen sicca rupees. But as this coin (calcu 1 - 
lating according to the relative value of the two metals) was much 
below the worth of the silver in the number of rupees for which it 
was ordered to pass, it was found impossible to render it current, 
and it was accordingly called in, and a new gold rnohur, being 
that now current, was issued in 1769, which was directed to pass 
as a legal tender of payment for sixteen sicca rupees. The intrin- 
sic worth of this coin was estimated to be equal to the nominal 
value of it, or as nearly so as was deemed necessary to render it 
current at the prescribed rate. But whether owing to the effect 
of the orders for the introduction of the over-rated gold coin of 
1766, the considerable value of the new gold mohur, and the want 
of divisions of it, so as to render the coin calculated for the deal- 
ings of the lower orders of the people in the interior part of the 
country, or other causes, the currency of it has been almost en- 
tirely confined to Calcutta, where it has been received and paid in 
all public and private payments at the fixed value of sixteen sicca 
rupees. But this partial currency of the gold coin has enabled the 
money-changers to practice an abuse upon the public and indi- 
viduals of a nature similar to that which has prevailed regarding 

the silver The means which appear best calculated to render 

the gold mohur generally current are to declare it receivable at 
all the public treasuries and in all public payments throughout 
the provinces, at the rate of sixteen sicca rupees ; to make it a legal 
tender of payment in private transactions ; to coin a great propor- 
tion of halves and quarters ; and lastly, to impose a duty upon 
all gold bullion sent to the mint to be coined so as to prevent too 
large a proportion of gold being introduced into circulation, by 
diminishing, in some degree, the advantage at present derived 
from the importation of it in preference to silver." 

To guard, as far as possible, against the counterfeiting, clip- 
ping, drilling, filing, defacing, or debasing the coin, it was enacted 
oy Section VII of Eegulation XXXV that " the edges of both the 
gold and silver coin are to be milled, and the dies are to be made 
of the same size as the coin, so that the whole of the impression 
may appear upon the surface of it." 



41 

As regards the coins of the nineteenth sun, which are repeatedly 
referred to in the above Regulation, Marsdeu says l in the course 
of his observations on a gold mohur, bearing on the obverse the 
date 1197 (A.D. 1781-2), and on the reverse the inscription 



" struck at Moorshidabdd in the 19th year of the auspicious reign." 

" The legend adopted by Shah Alum at his succession is con- 

tinued on this mulir and the subsequent coinage in gold and silver, 

professing to be from the mint of Murshidabad, the modern 

capital of the province of Bengal, but which, in fact, were executed 

at Calcutta, under the immediate authority of the East India 

Company's Government. So early, indeed, as the year 1757, we 

find a treaty with the Nabob Scrajdh ed-daula/i, in which it is stipu- 

lated that sikkas (rupihs) may be coined at Allenagore (AUah- 

nagar ?) or Calcutta, in the same manner as at Hurshidabad. A 

similar article appears in a treaty with Jafir Ali Khan in 1763, 

and with Najim ed-daulah in 1764 5 but all these were superseded 

by the treaty of 1765, negociated by Lord Clive, then Governor of 

Bengal, in which a grant is made to the Company by Shah Alum, 

of the Dewani or plenary collection and administration of the 

revenues of that province. This muhr of 1196, as well as the 

nearly similar pieces of 1197, 1198, and 1201 are, in point of 

workmanship, respectable coins, and exceed in weight, by about 

20 grains, the ancient gold of the empire ; but present a fresh 

instance of that total disregard of the consistency and fidelity of 

dates, which has been already noticed as marking the money struck 

under European control ; for although actually the coinage of 

the twenty-third, twenty -fourth, and twenty-eighth years of the 

monarch's reign, as indicated by the corresponding years of the 

hc/rfi/t, they all express uniformly the nineteenth year. This 

anachronism, repeated through every successive coinage of the 

same mint, has confounded the investigations of writers on Indian 

numismatics, and cannot be too strongly reprobated." This 

" anachronism," or " glaring absurdity," as it is also called by 

Marsden, is referred to by T. C. Tyschen 2 in the following words: 

" Mira est in his numis annorum imperil cum annis Hegirse 

discordia : etenim cum Schah Alem regnum inierit a 1175, annus 

ejus 19 erat Heg 1193. Contra annus Heg 1202 esset imperii 28 

a 1203, imp. 29 ....... Videntur Angli typis veteribus avers89 

partis aliquando uti, de annis miseri imperatoris recte numerandis 
parum curiosi. Further Mr. Stanley Lane-Poole says in the 
Introduction to the Coins of the Sultans of Dehli in the British 
Museum 3 : " Daulat Khan Lodi and Khizr Khan, in the general 
confusion which accompanied the invasion of India by Timur, 
preferred rather to trade upon the traditional credit of their 
predecessors than to make any demands upon the people's trust in 
their personal solvency, and thus issued their coins in the name of 
Firoz III or Muhammad III, the mints of which issues cannot be 
held to offer a very trustworthy evidence of the extent of their 
striker's dominion, which, however, we know from other sources 



1 Numismat. Orient., 1825, part ii, p. 688. 

2 De Numig Indicis Comment, p. 192. 



1884, p. xvii. 
F 



to have been limited to a small district immediately surrounding 
Dekli. Neither of these two puppets was a king in any real sense, 
and to such it mattered little whose superscription was placed on 
the public money, his duty was confined to authorising the legal- 
ity of the new issues by so much of his attestation as was implied 
in the annual date recorded on the reverse ..... a system, indeed, 
which the East India Company, of their own free will, imitated 
with much credit and simplicity by striking their rupees in the 
name of Shah 'Alum and other defunct monarchs of Dehli whose 
money had of old obtained good repute in the local bazars. But 
as the progressive annual dates, which were needed to test the good 
faith of Oriental princes, came in process of time to be a source of 
confusion and an opportunity for money-changers, the Government 
adopted the expedient of selecting the best current coin of the day 
and based their standard upon its intrinsic value; and so the 
immutable date of the xix san (year) of Shah 'Alum came to 
figure upon our much prized ' Sicca Rupees. ' l " 

A rupee is described by Marsden, 2 bearing on the obverse the 
inscription 



and on the reverse the inscription 



concerning which he says : " It seems extraordinary that at the 
period when a handsome, well-executed coinage of gold and silver 
was issuing from the Mint of Calcutta (though nominally from 
that of Murshid-abad), a rupih so rude as this should make its 
appearance in the same capital ..... Another specimen of the 
same coinage, on which the year of the era is obliterated, has the 
twenty-fifth year of the reign ; as has the half rupih of the same 
class, weighing 3 dw. 17 ^ grains." Concerning a gold mohur 
struck in the name of Shah Alum in 1202 (A.D. 1787-88) he 
says 3 : "In the workmanship of this coin we observe the first 
instance of milling on the edges in the European manner. 
There is a difference also in the style of engraving the characters, 
which have here a flat surface." 

As regards the several varieties of coin produced by modi- 
fications of weight, standard, or die, from time to time in the 
Calcutta and subordinate mints of the Bengal Presidency, which 
bear the same legend and date, the following mode of discrimi- 
nating them is pointed out by Prinsep 4 : 

"(1} The old standard sikka rupee of 17931818 has an 

oblique milling. 
" (2) The new standard sikka rupee of 18181832 has a 

straight milling. 

1 E. Thomas : Chronicles, pp. 329, 330 ; International Numismata Orientalia, 
vol. i, part 1 ; Ancient Indian Weights, p. 53 f . 

J L. c., p. 689. s L. C-) p- 690 

4 Useful Tables. Ed. by Edward Thomas, 1858, pp. 2, 3. 



43 

" (3) The new sikka rupee, struck under the present regula- 
tion, has a plain edge without milling, and a dotted 
riin on the face. 
The distinctions of the oblique and straight milling 

apply also to the old and new gold mohur. 
Of the up-country or Farrukhabad coins 

"(4) The old standard Farrukhabad rupee (or '45th Sun 
Lucknow rupee ' of Regulation XLV, 1803) has an 
oblique milling. 

" (5) The Benares rupee, coined 1806 1819, has also an 
oblique milling. 

" (6) The new standard Farrukhabad rupee, coined at the 
Farrukhabad Mint, 1819 24, and at the Benares 
Mint, 1819 30, and now at the Sagar Mint, has an 
upright milling. 

*' (7) The Farrukhabad rupee, coined under the new regula- 
tion at the Calcutta Mint, has a plain edge, and a 
plain rim on the face. 

" The coins struck before 1793 at the old mints of Patna, 
Murshidabdcl, and Dacca, the Benares rupee anterior to 1806, and 
the coins of all the native independent states, are known by their 
having no milling. The Company's coin up the country is thus 
generally called kalddr, ( milled or made by machinery,' in con- 
tradistinction to the unmilled or native coins, which are fashioned 
and stamped with the hammer and anvil." 

About the same time as the passing of Reg. XXXV, 1793, the 
Surat rupee of the Moghul Emperor was adopted as the currency 
of the Bombay Presidency. By an agreement with the Nawdb of 
Surat the rupees coined by both were to circulate at par, and they 
were mutually pledged to preserve its standard. The Nawab's 
rupees, however, were soon found to contain 10, 12, and even 15 
per cent, of alloy ; in consequence of which the Bombay rupees 
were melted down, and recoined at Surat ; the coinage of silver in 
the Bombay Mint was suspended for twenty years, and theSuratis 
alone were seen in circulation. At length in 1800 the Company 
ordered the then Surat rupee to be struck at Bombay, and thence- 
forth it became fixed at 179 grains' weight, 16474 pure. The 
mohur was also equalised in weight thereto. 

By Regulation XLV of 1803 it was enacted that 1803. 

(Section II). A silver coin, to be denominated the Lucknow 
sicca rupee of the forty-fifth sun (pi. vii-1), struck in the mint of 
Furruckhabad, corresponding in weight and standard with the sicca 
rupee at present struck at Lucknow, in the dominions of the Nawab 
Vizier, and thence denominated the Luoknow rupee, is hereby de- 
clared to be the established and legal silver coin in the provinces 
ceded by the Nawab Vizier to the English East India Company. 

(Section IV). A mint shall be established at, or in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the town of Furruckhabad, in which Lucknow 
sicca rupees of the forty-fifth sun, and of the prescribed weight 
and standard, and half and quarter rupees of the same standard 
and proportionate weight, will be coined. 

(Section V). The Lucknow forty-fifth sun sicca rupee, as 
established by this regulation, shall be of the same size and form 



44 

as the nineteenth sun sicca rupee, struck in the mint at Calcutta, 
and shall bear the following impression : 

Obverse 

X- BUjU f}\. fiU J 

Reverse 

*/ 1 *- v * ' J 

(Section VI). The half and quarter rupee shall be propor- 
tionately less in size than the rupee according to their respective 
value, and shall bear the same impression as the rupee. 

(Section XII). The Mint Master at Calcutta shall cause a 
private mark to be put on all dies, which may be prepared for the 
mint at Furruckhabad, but in such a manner as not to be distin- 
guishable by the naked eye, or by persons unacquainted with 
it. These marks shall be varied as often as the Mint Master at 
Calcutta shall judge proper upon new dies being made. 

1811. In 1811 a coinage from Spanish dollars took place at the 
Madras Mint, consisting of double rupees, single rupees, halves 
and quarters, and one, two, three, and five fan am pieces. A silver 
coinage of half and quarter pagodas of dollar silver fineness also 
took place then. The silver half pagoda weighed 326'73 grs. troy, 
and was equal to If Arcot rupee. 

1812. The following statement, dated Fort St. Greorge, 24th April 
1812, shows the denomination of gold and silver coins manu- 
factured in the Madras Mint from April 1807 to December 
1811: 



Gold. 

Double Pagodas. 
Single ,, 

Silver. 

Half Pagodas. 
Quarter ,, 
Five Fanams. 
Double , 



Single Fanams. 
Double Rupees. 
Single ,, 

Half 

Quarter ,, 
One-eighth ,, 
Four annas. 
Two 



The five, double, and single fanam pieces, are thin coins, but 
there is in the Madras Museum collection a thick five fanam piece 
(pi. xvi, 9) with oblique milling, and a thick double fanam is 
mentioned by Atkins. These coins are very scarce, and are either, 
as has been suggested, of older date than the others, or were struck 
as patterns. 

The English inscription on the coins is sometimes blundered, 
reading, e.g., DOUBLE FANVM or EAXAM. 

The silver four-anna and two- anna pieces are now exceedingly 
scarce, and a two-anna piece is referred to by Atkins as having been 
probably fabricated about the same time, in which the English 
inscription is in script character. 

In a proclamation, dated Fort St. George, 19th June 1812, it 
is stated that " the coinage of double rupees, half and quarter 
pagodas lias ceased, but these coins shall still continue to pass in 
circulation, and be issued and received at all the public treasuries 
at the same rate and value as heretofore. 



45 

" The coinage of rupees, half rupees, and quarter rupees of 
English standard fineness shall be commenced at the mint of this 
presidency forthwith, and shall severally weigh as follows, and 
contain the following proportions of pure silver and of alloy. The 
rupee shall weigh 180 grains English troy weight, and shall 
contain 166 1 grains of pure silver, and 13^ grains of alloy. The 
half rupee shall weigh 90 grains English troy weight, and shall 
contain 83 j grains of pure silver, and 6f grains of alloy. The 
quarter rupee shall weigh 45 grains English troy weight, and shall 
contain 41 grains of pure silver, and 5f grains of alloy. 

" The above rupees, containing each T {^ of a grain more of 
pure silver than the Arcot rupees which have been issued from the 
Madras Mint under the proclamation of the loth of July 1 807, half 
rupees and quarter rupees shall pass in general circulation, and 
shall be received and issued at all the public treasuries under this 
presidency at the same rate with the Arcot and Company's rupees 
now in circulation, that is, at 350 rupees to 100 star pagodas." 

A letter to the Chief Secretary to Government, dated Fort St. 1813. 
George, 7th January 1813, states that "considerable quantities of 
the new rupees, halves, and quarters, having now been coined, 
the issue of two-anna pieces from the mint will shortly com- 
mence We are of opinion that the two-anna pieces, though 

hitherto unknown in the circulation of this presidency, will readily 
incorporate with the existing currency ; integral numbers of these 
coins measuring with the pagoda, half pagoda and quarter pagoda, 
as well as with the rupees and its sub-divisions of halves and 
quarters. Thus twenty-eight two-anna pieces are equivalent 
to one pagoda, fourteen to the half, and seven to the quarter 
pagoda." 

The term Boolakie or Soolackie as applied to coins is explained 
by a letter to the Chief Secretary to Government, Fort St. George, 
dated 18th January 1813, wherein it is stated that "there are two 

modes of rendering coins Soolakie The one is adopted for 

the most part by the petty village surrafs in those territories (the 
Nizam's) who, being in general very inexpert in ascertaining the 
fineness of the metal, invariably punch a hole in the rupee to 
convince themselves that it is good silver ; but as this expedient is 
net sufficient to guard against the frauds of coiners, who frequently 
counterfeit rupees of copper covered with a coat of silver, with 
one or two such holes in them, it is usual for the surrafs, when 
they have the slightest suspicion that the metal is base, to punch 
a fresh hole in it. In consequence, it is by no means uncommon 
to see rupees with eight or ten such marks indented upon them. 
The other kind of Soolakie coins are made so by the surrafs 
of large towns who undertake to shro/fthe money belonging to 
individuals for a certain percentage, under an agreement to make 
good any coins that may afterwards turn out to be counterfeit. 
In order that the coins that have undergone such examination may 
be recognised, each principal suraff has a private stamp or mark 
of his own, which he affixes to the edge or some other part of the 
coin. The existence of one or more such marks gives a sort of 
sanction to the currency, as the credit of those who have put their 
stamp to it is a pledge for its goodness. Hence many rupees 



46 



have forty or fifty such impressions, and at last become completely 
defaced. Neither of these modes of making the rupee Soolakie 
diminishes at all the weight of it, but, according to long custom, 
its value in exchange becomes greatly reduced when it is imported 
into the Company's territories." 

It appears from a letter addressed to the Board of Eevenue by 
the Collector of Tinnevelly that by an old order of Government 
it was provided that all payments made to the troops in that 
province should be solely in Cully fanams (which are stated to 
have been coined originally by the Hindu Government in that 
province) at the fixed exchange of sixteen and a half per star 
pagoda. This order was rescinded in the course of the year 1812. 

The following list is of interest as showing the various kinds 
of gold and silver coins which were melted and recoined at the 
Madras Mint in the years 1807 to 1813 ^ 



Timmanaidoo Pagodas. 

Sul tawny 

Vencataputty 

Doorgee 

Jemsherry 

Feroke 

Ahamuddy 

Aununtaroy 

Madras 

Sunnakurk or Madras Pagodas. 

Mittee or ,, 

Porto Novo Pagodas. 

Bahadari ,, 

Pulliput ,, 

Siddeke , , 

Timmanaidoo Half Pagodas. 

Sharkany 

Gajaputty 

Darvady 

Naidoo Pertaup 

Subderally 

New Subderally 

Commengy 

St. Thome Pagodas. 

Kurky ,, 

Atchootaroy 

Elephant ,, 

Ekary ,, 

Old Ekary 

Old Mahomed Shaye ,, 

New 

,, Hurpanully 
Old 

,, Sravanore ,, 

New 

Old Arnee ,, 

Vandavash ,, 

Pulicat ,, 

Vencataputty . 

Bombay 



Bunder Pagodas. 

Cacanadie 
Eassee Eapadum 
Poondanull and Longvet 
Pulk Bunder Kurky 
Peddatala Bengal ore 
Star Pagodas soldered with rings. 
Sataury or Sravanaroy Pagodas. 
Tanjore Fanams. 

Kauket or Aparunjee ,, 
Eassee 
Timmanaidoo 
Canteroy 
New Veroy 
Old 

Aununtaroy, Double 
Single 
Gopally 
New Gopally 
Old 

Travancottah Cully 
Arealore 
Woodiary 
Cully 
Chuckree 
Calicut 

Tinnavelly ,, 

New Gold Mohur. 
Old 
One-third Old Gold Mohur. 

,, New Gold Mohur. 
Sunnamola Mohur. 

Bombay 
Akburry 
Dilhe 
Rassee 

Soorat Jayanagur 
Sidtauny 
Wallace 
Poonah 



1 The spelling is retained as it occurs in the Mint Becords. 



47 



Venetions or Shanar Cash. 

Alkoss Cash. 

Guinea Cass. 

Mydores. 

St. Thome Cash. 

Gold Rupees. 

Spanish Dollars. 

Cut 

German Crowns. 

American Dollars. 

Duccatoons. 

Pondicherry Eupees. 

,, ,, 2nd sort. 

Soolaky , , 

Arcot ,, 

Nabob Arcot ,, 
Arcot Soolaky ,, 
Nokurrah ,, 

Mysore ,, 

Mallarthaye ,, 
Sunnamola ,, 
Soorat 

Rassee ,, 

Adony 

Kurnal 



Chellavany Rupees. 

Narrain Pettah 

Company's Soolaky 

Cunnanore 

Gurnamully 

Sultauny 

Emaumy 

Chandoly 

Masulipatam 

Bombay 

Elephant 

Halt' Pagodas. 

Quarter ,, 

Sravanore Rupees. 

Sicca 

Arcot 

Bunder 

Kaukenadoo 

Pulicat 

Four Annas. 

Bungapully Rupees. 

Chuckrums. 

Telli cherry Fanams. 

Various other 



Under the heading July 21, 1813, Euding says 1 : "The 
coins which usually circulated in the East Indies had not, as it 
appears, received any sanction from Government, until an Act 
which was passed at this time declared it to be expedient for the 
protection of property and trade in the East Indies, that, etc., etc. ; 
and also that further provisions should be made for the punishment 
of the crimes of, etc., etc., and of counterfeiting the current coin, 
and uttering such counterfeit coin in the East Indies ; it therefore 
enacted that if any person within the local limits of the criminal 
jurisdiction of any of His Majesty's Courts at Fort William, Fort 
St. George, Bombay, or Prince of "Wales' Island, or if any 
person, personally subject to the jurisdiction of the said courts, at 
any place in the East Indies, or any place between the Cape of 
Good Hope and the Straits of Magellan, where the United Company 
of Merchants of England trading to the East Indies should have a 
settlement, factory, or other establishment, should counterfeit, or 
procure to be counterfeited, or willingly act or assist in counter- 
feiting any of the gold or silver coins of any of the British 
Governments in India, or any gold or silver coin usually current 
and received as money in payments in any part of the British 
possessions in the East Indies, it should and might be lawful for 
the court, before which any such person should be convicted of any 
such offence by due course of law, to order and adjudge that 
such person should be transported to such place beyond the seas, 
and for such term of years as the said court should direct. The 
punishment for uttering such counterfeit coin, knowing it to be 
such, to be upon conviction, for the first offence six months' 
imprisonment with hard labour during that time at the discretion 



1813. 



1. Op. cit., vol. ii, p. 111. 



48 

of the court, and surety to be given for good behaviour for six 
months more, to be computed from the end of the first six. For 
the second offence two years' imprisonment with hard labour as 
before, and surety to be given for two years after the expiration 
of the term of imprisonment. For the third offence transportation 
for life. A certificate, under the hand of the proper officer of the 
court, to be a sufficient proof of the former conviction. 

" On conviction (upon the oath of one or more credible witness 
or witnesses, before one of His Majesty's justices of the peace, or 
if there should be no justice of the peace duly qualified to act in 
the place where such offence should be committed, before one of 
his majesty's court there) of having in possession more than live 
pieces of such counterfeit coin, without lawful excuse, the proof of 
which to lie upon the party accused, the whole of such counterfeit 
pieces to be forfeited, and to be cut to pieces and destroyed, and 
the offender to pay for every such piece not more than forty, nor 
less than twenty sicca rupees, in the currency of the place where 
such offence should be committed ; one moiety of which to go to 
the informer or informers, and the other moiety to the poor of 
the presidency, settlement, or place where such offence should be 
committed, and in case the penalty should not be forthwith paid, 
the offender to be committed to the common gaol or house of 
correction, there to be kept to hard labour for the space of three 
calendar months, or until such penalty should be paid." 

1815. I n the 17th clause of a Regulation enacted 3 1st March 1815 for 
establishing certain rules for the business of the Madras Mint, it 
is stated that : " The coins now fabricated in the Madras Mint 
are of the following denominations : of gold double pagoJax, each 
weighing three pennyweights, nineteen grains, and seven-eleventh 
parts of a grain, troy, of English standard, and of the value of 
two pagodas; single pagodas, each weighing one pennyweight, 
twenty-one grains, and nine-eleventh parts of a grain, troy, of 
English standard, and of the value of one pagoda : of silver tingle 
rupees, each weighing seven pennyweights and twelve grains, 
troy, of English standard, and of the value of twelve fanams sixty- 
eight cash, and four-seventh parts of a cash ; half rupees, each 
weighing three pennyweights and eighteen grains, troy, of Eng- 
lish standard, and of the value of six fanams, thirty-four cash, 
two-seventh parts of a cash ; quarter rupees, each weighing one 
pennyweight and twenty-one grains, troy, of English standard, 
and of the value of three Fanams, seventeen cash, and one-seventh 
part of a cash ; and two-ana pieces, each weighing twenty-two 
and a half grains, troy, of English standard, and of the value of 
one fanam, forty-eight cash, and four-seventh parts of a cash. 

The inscriptions on the single and half rupee were 

Obverse 



were 



Reverse 

(j**i- ^ f 

The inscriptions on the quarter rupee and two-anna piece 



49 

OSverse 

S ^Jlc X. 

Reverse 



In a letter from the British Resident at Bangalore, dated 1816. 
13th September 1816, concerning the Surat Rupees in circulation 
in the Province of Mysore it is stated that : " The Surat Rupee 
was originally imported into the Mysore country by the troops of 
Hyder Ali Khan, and by the soucars who returned from Malabar 
with his army after the capture of Calicut in or about the year 1 766, 
but the currency was very limited until the conquest of Seringa- 
patam, when that coin became somewhat more common in these 
provinces. As there was not any considerable commercial inter- 
course between Malabar and Canara and Mysore for several years 
after the fall of Seriugapatam, the amount of the circulation in 
Soorat Rupees was never extensive until 1808." 

In 1817 considerable correspondence took place as to the estab- 1817. 
lishment of a mint by the French Company at Pondicherry. It 
was proposed that, with a view to simplifying accounts and remov- 
ing any inconvenience which might arise from the establishment 
of the French Mint, the rupees to be coined at Pondicherry should 
be of precisely the same weight and value as those struck at Madras 
and at that time current in the territories of the Honorable Com- 
pany. But to this proposition the Madras Government replied to 
the effect that it seemed scarcely necessary to express the expecta- 
tion of the Governor- General in Council that the impression on the 
French coin should be such as to render it easily distinguishable 
from the coinage of the British Government, and that, were the 
mintage at Pondicherry to be after the pattern of the coins struck 
by the British Government, as there seemed grounds for imagining 
might have been in contemplation, the British Government would 
in effect be made to answer for the intrinsic work of a currency, 
which it would have no means of regulating. In conformity with 
the instruction of the British Government, the following specimens 
of the coins struck at Pondicherry were forwarded by the British 
Consul on June 12th, 1817 : 

One Rupee. 

Half 

Double Fauam. 

Single ,, of which 

eight were equivalent to a Rupee. 
Half Fan am. 
One Doodee. 
Half 
One Cash, of which 

sixty-four were equivalent to a Fanara. 

A letter from the Director of the Pondicherry Mint, bearing 
the same date, states that " I have the honor to send you eight 
specimens of the species (of coins) we have coined sinco the restor- 
ation of the place of Pondicherry to the French Government, 
viz. : 



60 

" One Rupee. A small crescent has (ever) been added to the 
stamp as a mark of its being a French Eupee. 

One Half Rupee. 

One Double Pondy Fanam. 

One Single ,, ,, 

of which eight make a Rupee. 

One Half Pondy Fanain. 

Out-- Doodoo or Quadruple Cash. 

One Half Doodoo or Double Cash. 

One Single Cash, 64 of which make a Fanam. 

" We have not yet coined any gold species. The French old 
pagoda or crescent pagoda has the same weight and the same 
degree of fineness as the Star Pagoda. Many years before the 
Revolution the Mint of Pondicherry had ceased coining crescent 
pagodas. It had confined itself to coining c three Sawmy l ' 
Pagodas, otherwise improperly called Madras Pagodas. 

"They were designed for the trade ofPunjum cloths at oar 
i'actory of Yanan. This last kind of species we will probably coin 
in a short time." 

With respect to the crescent, which is mentioned in the above 
letter as being marked on the Pondicherry rupee, the British 
Commissioner remarks in a letter, dated 7th May 1817 : " Advert- 
ing to a former letter respecting the French coinage, wherein I 
stated that the legend on it would be entirely different from that 
on ours, I beg to observe that the information I then conveyed to 
yon was obtained in conversation with Count Du Puy and M. 
Dayot. The French coinage being now current in Pondicherry, I 
perceive that the legend is the same, or nearly so, as that of the 
Company's rupees, and that the principal mark of distinction is a 
small crescent on one of the sides. The intrinsic value of the com 
I understand to be somewhat greater than that of ours." 

By Regulation XXV of 1817 "for fixing the weight of the 
pice struck at the Calcutta mint, and for giving general circu- 
lation to pice struck at any of the mints subordinate to this pre- 
sidency," the copper paisa struck at the Benares mint, weighing 
98 j grains, which were intended at first for circulation in the 
province of Benares only, and were distinguished with a trident 
or trisula, were made current throughout the Bengal provinces at 
par with the Farrukhabad paisa. 2 

The following extracts from the Minutes of Consultation, dated 
16th September 1817, bear upon the proposed new gold and silver 
coinage : " In .considering this important subject," it is stated, 

1 Pagode a trois figures. 

2 Notes on pice or paisd. From Yule and Burnell, op. cit. 

C. 1590. " The dam is the fortieth part of the rupee. At first this 

coin was called paisah." Ain., 31. 

1615. " Pice, which is a copper coyne ; twelve dratnmes make one pice. The 
English shilling, if weight, will yeeld thirtie- three pice and a halfe." W. Peyton 
in Purchas, 1, 530. 

1673. " Pice, a sort of copper money current among the poorer sort of people 

the Company's accounts are kept in book-rate pice, viz., 32 to the mam. 

{i.e., mamoodie] and 80 pice to the rupee." Fryer, 205. 

1689. " Lower than these (pier-) Intter almonds here (Surat) pass for money, 
about sixty of which mako a pier." Orir>;itr,n, 219. 

l?2fi. " 1 aiia makes 1J stuyvfrs <>r 2 pey/t.' 1 Valevtijn, v. 179. 



51 

" the Board have referred particularly to the letter from the 
Honorable Court, dated the 25th of April 1806, which contains 
the ground work of all their subsequent orders concerning it. In 
that letter the Honorable Court explained their object to be to 
establish a general currency for the whole of India. They stated 
that the standard currency forming the money of account ought 
to be of one of the precious metals only, but not to the exclusion 
of the other ; that the metal ought to be silver ; and that no ratio 
ought to be fixed between the standard silver coin and the gold 
coin, but that gold should be left to find its own value. The 
Court further desired that the gold coin should be denominated a 
gold rupee, 1 and that the gold and silver rupees should be the same 
in weight, fineness, form and inscription. They also desired that 
half and quarter gold and silver rupees, and annahs should be 
coined, and stated that a copper coinage of six-pice, three-pice, 
and one-pice pieces would be sent from England. 

" The Mint Committee report that they are aware of no objec- 
tion to the immediate execution of the arrangements proposed 
by the Honorable Court, and they accordingly recommend that, 
with the exception of single annahs, the gold and silver coinage 
should forthwith commence in pursuance of the Honorable Court's 
orders. They propose also that the rupee should become the 
money of account, and that the accounts of Government should be 
converted from gold into silver at the present ratio of 1 to 13'875, 
or one pagoda for three rupees and a half. The money of account 
at Madras has heretofore been the gold pagoda, which used also to 
form the actual currency. When the silver rupee was introduced 
into the currency, it was settled that three rupees and a half 
should represent one pagoda. In consequence of the pagoda 
being undervalued at that rate, it has gradually disappeared from 
circulation, and the rupee now forms the actual currency, and, 
though not the money of account, has become the standard of 
value. 

" With respect to the form and impression of the new gold 
and silver coins, these will finally be settled either in Bengal 
or in England. As the currency is intended for general use 
throughout India, it will be deserving of consideration whether 
the impression ought not to be in English, and whether the form 
ought not to resemble that of English rather than of Indian coins." 

A proclamation, dated Fort St. George, 9th December 1817, 
states that " The Right Honorable the Governor in Council, in 
furtherance of the orders of the Honorable the Court of Directors, 
is pleased to publish for general information, that hereafter the 
standard circulating medium is to be the Madras silver rupee, in 
which all issues of pay and allowances, civil and military, and all 
public contracts are to be reckoned, made, and executed, and that 
the coinage of star pagodas will hereafter be discontinued. 

1 There is in the Madras Museum a single specimen of the little coin (pi. 
xi-10), which is commonly called the Bombay gold rupee, concernirg which 
Marsclen says (Num. Or., 1825, pt. ii., p. 696) : " Of the same year of the reign 
(of Shah Alum, 1218 or 1219), and evidently from the same mint, are some very 
email gold coins, weighing each about 12 grs., and which must be considered aa 
gold fivri.s or sixteenth parts of a mxhr. In appearance they resemble rather the 
gold fanams of the Karnatik, than fractional denominations of Hindustani coins." 



52 



" The Right Honorable the Governor in Council is also pleased 
to declare that all pay and allowances, both civil and military, 
having been heretofore rated in pagodas and converted into Arcot 
rupees at 350 per 100 star pagodas shall continue to be the same, 
and that all payments made from the public treasuries, and re- 
ceived into them in payment of revenue, that have heretofore been 
made in pagodas, shall continue to be at the rate of 350. A : 
Us. equivalent to 100 star pagodas. 

" The Bight Honorable the Governor in Council is pleased to 
declare his intention to prepare for circulation the fractional parts 
of the rupee, viz. : Annas and pice, of which 16 annas are equal 
to one rupee, and 12 pice to one anna. 

" For this purpose the new coinage of silver will consist of 
the silver rupee, the half rupee or 8-annas piece, and the quarter 
rupee or 4- annas piece, and the Right Honorable the Governor 
in Council is pleased to command that these shall circulate, and be 
received in payment at their established value. 

" The Eight Honorable the Governor in Council having abro- 
gated the use of the gold star pagoda, has been pleased, for public 
convenience, to substitute the gold rupee, bearing the same inscrip- 
tion as the silver rupee, and of equal weight, viz., 180 grains, 
containing of fine gold 165 grains and alloy of silver 15 grains, 
which gold rupee will be issued and received in all payments of 
revenue at the rate of fifteen silver rupees for one gold rupee 

" The established and acknowledged circulating medium in 
specie of the Presidency of Fort St. George is hereby declared to 
be hereafter as follows : 





Pure gold. 


Alloy. 


Total. 


Gold rupee 


Grs. 165 


Grs. 15 


Grs. 180 


Half gold rupee 
Quarter 


',', 4ii 


" 3* 


90 
45 




Pure silver. 






Silver rupee 
,, halt* rupee 
,, quarter ,, 
eighth or double anna 
Single anna ... 


Grs. 165 

82J 

201 


15 
7 
8f 
If 

JL4 
16 


180 
90 
45 



" As it will not be practicable at once to recall from circulation 
the whole of the star pagodas and their fractional parts, the silver 
fanams and copper cash, the Eight Honorable the Governor in 
Council is pleased to announce his resolution that they shall still 
continue to be received as often as they are tendered, in payment, 
until the whole can be withdrawn : that three rupees and a half 
shall be considered as representing the star pagoda, and that one 
star pagoda shall be equivalent to 45 fanams ; that one rupee 
shall pass as heretofore for 12 fanams 68 cash, and 1 fanam for 
80 cash. 



53 

" The copper coinage in circulation is also hereby declared 
to be continued until a sufficient quantity of copper pice can be 
prepared, adapted in weight to its relative value with the superior 
denomination of coin its fractional parts." 

It appears from the records that, in the course of the year 1817, 
an order was passed directing Collectors not to receive Pondicherry 
rupees in payment of revenue, but this order was rescinded on the 
receipt of a letter from the Collector of South Arcot to the effect 
that the old Poudicherry rupees, fanams, and cash had always 
been received into the district treasuries of that division, and 
that, if they were not received, it would tend much to impede the 
collections both in the Land and Sai/cr department ; besides -which 
it would fall very hard on the cultivators, for they would be 
obliged to pay a certain vutitm, in order to get the village shroffs 
to exchange the Pondicherry coins for the Company's, and this 
would completely put the ryots at the mercy of the village bankers. 
It was accordingly resolved that the old Pondicherry rupee should 
be received in payment of revenue, so long as it continued to be 
distinguishable from the new one, specimens of which had been 
assayed, and found to manifest a striking variation both in their 
weight and fineness. The prohibition of the circulation of the 
Pondicherry rupee is referred to in a letter from the Collector of 
Salem regarding the receipt and payment of revenue in Cantaroy 
fanams, in reply to which it was stated in a letter, dated 24th 
February 181$, that " The Collector refers to the orders prohi- 
biting the circulation of the Pondicherry rupee in the territories 
of the Hon'ble Company, and we are aware of no reason why a pre- 
ference should be given the currency of the Mysore Government, 
particularly when the Hon'ble Company are at the grsat expense 
of mint establishments and recoinage. We would therefore recom- 
mend that the Collector of Salem be instructed not to receive in 
future Cantaroy fanams in payment of revenue, they being the 
coinage of the Mysore mint, which has issued so large a quantity 
of late, encouraged no doubt by the fallacious value given to them 
in the Hon'ble Company's territory, as to have proved a great 
source of inconvenience in the Ceded Districts. The same orders 
should be extended to the other Collectors in that quarter." 

In the preamble of Eegulation XIV, 1818, " for altering the 1818. 
standard of the Calcutta sicca rupee } and gold mohur, and for 
further modifying some of the rules in force respecting these 
coins," it is stated that " the high standards established for the 
gold mohur and sicca rupee, having been found productive of 
many inconveniences, both to individuals and the public, inas- 
much as they are ill-calculated to resist the wear and defacement 
to which coins are necessarily exposed, and as they are only to be 
obtained by having recourse to the expensive process of refining, 

1 Extract from a letter from the Assay Master, Fort St. George, dated 4th 
January 1821 : 

" The people of these territories appear to call all coins which are issued by 
the Bengal Government sicca rupees; thus there are Cutke siccas, Nag;apoor sic- 
cas, Jfiynpoor siccas, Bajeeron siccas, Narainpetta siccas, Benares, FarrnkhabSd, 
ami others, but the Wallis rupees are understood to be the Calcutta sicca, the 
finest arid heaviest of all." 



54 

diminishing consequently the productiveness of most of the sorts 
of bullion imported into the Company's territories ; and it being 
desirable also that as much uniformity as can be established 
between the currencies circulating at the different presidencies 
should be introduced, consequently that an approximation of the 
Calcutta coins to the standard of those current at Madras and 
Bombay should be effected, it has been resolved to rescind the 
provisions of former regulations relative to the standard of the 
gold mohur and nineteenth sun sicca rupee, and to coin in future 
money of the proportions hereafter to be specified. 

" As a reduction in the value of the sicca rupee, from its being 
in great measure the money of account, both in private and public 
transactions, would necessarily change the terms of all existing 
contracts, and might be productive of embarrassment and trouble, 
it has been determined to leave the rupee unaltered in this respect ; 
and the new Calcutta nicca rupee will consequently contain the 
same quantity of fine silver as that heretofore struck ; and, being 
of the same intrinsic value, will circulate on the same terms. The 
mint proportions of silver and gold being, it is believed, inaccurately 
estimated at present, and it being also desirable that an uniformity 
in this respect should be introduced at the three Presidencies of 
Calcutta, Madras and Bombay, it has been thought advisable to 
make a slight deduction in the intrinsic value of the gold mohur to 
be coined at this presidency, in order to raise the relative value of 
fine gold to fine silver, from the present rates of I to 14*861 to that 
of 1 to 15. The gold mohur will still continue to pass current at 
the present rate of sixteen rupees." 

With respect to the new coinage at the Madras mint, which 
has already been referred to, two points for consideration remained 
after specimens of the gold coins had been minted, viz., whether 
they should be left plain or milled, and whether they should 
bear the date of the year in which they were minted. Specimens 
of the gold coins were forwarded to Government for approval, 
and a letter from the Secretary to Government to the Mint 
Committee, dated 26th January 1819, states that " The Right 
Honorable he Governor in Council concurs in your opinion that 
it is desirable to make a difference between the impressions of the 
gold and silver rupees, and also to alter the Persian inscription 
which those coins bear. The Governor in Council accordingly 

sanctions the specimens of gold coins submitted , except 

the English denominations under the Company's arms, which 
ought to be omitted. The Grovernor in Council desires that the 
coins may be milled, but not dated, as the shroffs might take 
advantage of the dates to impose a batta on the coinage of parti- 
cular years." The draft of a proclamation on the proposed alter- 
ation of the impression of the gold coins, submitted to Government 
on the 9th of March 1819, stated that "The Right Honorable 
the Governor in Council has been pleased to resolve that the 
inscriptions on the gold rupee, the gold half rupee and the gold 
quarter rupee shall be different from those on the silver rupee, 
the silver half rupee, and the silver quarter rupee, and has accord- 
ingly directed that the gold rupee shall in future be impressed 
on the face with the Honorable Company's arms and the words 



55 

ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY, and on the reverse with the words 
English Company's rupee in the Persian character ; that the gold 
half rupee shall bear the Company's crest and the words ENGLISH 
EAST INDIA COMPANY on the face, and the words English Company's 
half rupee in the Persian character on the reverse ; that the gold 
quarter rupee shall bear the Company's crest and the words 
ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY on the face, and the words English 
Company's quarter rupee in the Persian character on the reverse. 

By Regulation XI of 1819 the coinage of the Benares rupee 1819. 
was discontinued, and the Farrukhabad rupee declared the local 
currency of the province of Benares. " The Benares mint," 
Prinsep says : 1 " had been established by Raja Balwant Singh in 
1730. It remained under native management for twenty years 
after the province was ceded to the Company in 1775. The rupee 
had the full weight of one hundred and seventy-five grains, and 
was 2 per cent, better than the present rupee, or about equal to 
the Dihli rupee of that date. It fell in value subsequently about 
four anas per cent, and there, of course, remained under English 
management until it was abolished." 

In a letter to Government, dated 8th March 1820, the Madras 1820. 
Mint Committee recommended that "the gold rupee should be 
divided into thirds instead of halves and quarters. The third 
would be of the value of five rupees, which is a most convenient 
sum for computation. A coin of that value, we have no doubt, would 
be in great request, and thus would both contribute to the conveni- 
ence of the public, and, by promoting the circulation of gold, 
would maintain its relative value to the standard coin of the 
Government." The Mint Master was ordered to prepare a speci- 
men of a third, to be submitted for the sanction of the Governor 
in Council. The main reason of the recommendation of the Mint 
Committee was that, as the gold rupee was equal in value to 
fifteen silver rupees, the half equal to seven rupees and a half, and 
the quarter to three rupees and three quarters, these fractional 
parts did not correspond to any exact number of the coins next 
inferior in denomination, and were of a value so inconvenient as 
to prevent their ever being much in use. 

The following letter was addressed to Government by the 
Accountant-General, Fort St. George, on 28th February 1 820 : 

" By the report of the balance of the general treasury, dated 
the 20th instant, it is stated that there are no silver annas remain- 
ing, and, as it is expedient that there should be an ample supply 
of that coinage in substitution for the old and new Madras 
fananis which should be withdrawn from circulation, I beg to 
recommend that instructions be issued to the Mint Master to 
convert a greater portion of his silver balance into annas and to 
proceed upon the recoinage of the half and quarter pagoda, of 
dollar standard, including the five double and single fanam 
pieces. 

" There is also in circulation a rupee of the coinage of 1807, of 
dollar standard, which should also be called in and recoined, as 



1 Op. cit., p. 26. 



56 

well as the new Arcot rupee, which is of British standard, or 11 ozs. 
2 dwts. 

" The old Areot rupee is of a standard of superior fineness 
to the others, the recoinage of which may be a subject for con- 
sideration." 

Directions were accordingly given to coin a sufficient number 
of double annas and quarter and half rupees, and then to recoin 
all the fanam pieces. 

1821. The preamble of Regulation V, 1821, " for settling the rates 

at which Benares and Farrukhabad rupees shall be received in 
payment of the revenue of malguzars, whose engagements are 
expressed in Grohurshahee or Tirsolee rupees " states that " it is 
enacted by Regulation XI, 1819, that the Farrukhabad rupees 
shall be received within the province of Benares at par with the 
Benares rupees; but no provision has been made for regulating the 
exchange in account between the said rupees and the (johurshahee 
and Tirsolee rupees, in which it appears that the engagements of 
many malguzars are expressed ; moreover, the batta to be taken 
from such malguzars has hitherto been arbitrarily fixed, and 
considerable abuses have consequently prevailed. The intrinsic 
value of the coins having been now ascertained by a careful assay, 
whence it has appeared that the rupee denominated Chorah Gohur- 
shahee exceeds, and the other descriptions of Gohurshahee equal 
the Farrukhabad rupee in value,' and that the latter coin is 3-11-7 
per cent, superior in value to the Tirsolee rupee, the Revenue 
officers have been directed to adjust their demands on the said 
malguzars according to the results of the assay, subject to the 
general principle of receiving the Farrukhabad rupee at par 
with the Benares rupee, and without any demand of batta on 
account of its inferiority in value below the local currency." 

1823. It is stated in a letter from A. D. Campbell, Esq., Magistrate 

of Bellary, to the Madras Government, dated 27th April 1823, that 
a Brahmin, an inhabitant of Grudival in the Hyderabad territory, 
had tried to pass off 250 rupees of a suspicious nature, purporting 
to be of the Company's new coinage, in Kurnool, and stated, on 
examination, that they were forged by a goldsmith residing in 
the village of Muroor in the Hyderabad country. The Nabob 
was applied to, and detectives were sent to the goldsmith, who 
showed them all his utensils, and forged some coins in their pre- 
sence. The practical suggestion was made by Mr. Campbell that 
the inscription on the Company's coin should be partly in English, 
in order to render the forgery of it more difficult, as, though the 
English soldiers would still continue to imitate the coin, natives 
would find it much more difficult to imitate exactly English cha- 
racters than the native letters which were familiar to them. The 
further suggestion was made that a private mint mark might be 
placed on the coin, to be communicated to Collectors or their 
principal shroffs as a check upon forgery. 

In 1823 a pice piece (fifty-three to the pound) with its half and 
quarter, were executed by W. "VVyon for the East Indies, by the 
authority of the Secretary of State and the Master of the Mint. 
The obverse of these coins bore the arms of the Company and the 



57 

motto AUSP. BEGIS. & s. ANGLiAE, and the revers3 a Persian 
inscription. 1 

The mint at Farrukhabad was abolished by Regulation II, 1824. 
1824, it being considered no longer necessary to continue it, inas- 
much as provision had been made by Eegulation XXVI, 1817, 
for the coinage of the Farrukhabad rupee at any of the mints 
established by Government. 

Early in 1824 specimens were prepared in the Madras mint 
of a rupee, which, while superior in workmanship to the current 
rupee, was stated to be also much better adapted for the currency 
of the Madras Presidency, and very difficult to counterfeit. It 
appears from a letter from the Registrar of the Zillah Court, Chin- 
gleput, to Grovernment, dated 15th December 1823, that the most 
usual artifices by which coins were imitated or counterfeited at 
that time consisted in hollowing the centre of the old thick Com- 
pany rupee, and filling up the cavity with lead, or striking off the 
impression from both sides of a thin Company rupee on copper, 
and covering the surface with about one-tenth of an inch of silver, 
and thereby making it only distinguishable from the original by its 
weight. But a still more lucrative speculation was carried on by 
gilding the silver rupee, which was of the same weight, and bore 
the same superscription as one species of the gold mohurs. 

In the year 1825 the following correspondence took place with 1825. 
regard to the coinage of Prince of Wales' Island : 



From 



THE SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT, 

Fort William, 



To 

THE SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT, 

Fort St. George. 

SIR, 

I am directed by the Right Honorable the Governor-General 
in Council to transmit to you the accompanying copy of corre- 
spondence relative to the supply of copper coinage required by 
the Penang Government, and to request that the Honorable the 
Governor in Council will be pleased to cause the coinage in ques- 
tion to be prepared at Fort St. George, if practicable, and trans- 
mitted to Penang. 

2, Specimens of coins are herewith transmitted. 

I have the honor to be, 

Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 
th June 1825. HOLT MACKENZIE. 



1 Ruding, op. cit., vol. ii., p. 129. 



58 

From 

THE ACTING SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT, 

Fort Cornmillis, 

To 

THE SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT, 

Fort St. William. 
SIR, 

The copper coin sent out by the Honorable Court of IHrectors, 
having been all issued from the treasury, and great inconvenience 
being likely to arise before a supply can be received from England, 
I am directed to forward specimens of the coins in use, the pice 
and half pice, in the hope that it may be found practicable to 
manufacture the same at the mint in Calcutta. These coins are 
issued, the first at 100, the second at 200 to the dollar, and pass 
at Singapore, and all over the Malay Peninsula, where they are 
much sought after. A coinage of a double pye, 50 to the dollar, 
bearing the same stamp, would also be convenient, should the 
measure be found practicable, and not attended with inconvenience. 
The transmission of the above coin to the amount of 10,000 
dollars in value would prove extremely useful to the general 
condition of the island. 

I have, &c., &c., 

9th April 1825. E. I. BLUNDELL. 

The mint records show that, in consequence of this correspon- 
dence, new punches and dies were made, and 130,300 double 
pice, 136,700 single pice, and 145,000 half pice struck for the 
Penang Government. 

As regards the earlier coinage of Pulo Pinang or Prince of 
Wales' Island, Marsden says : l 

" There are in the collection a few specimens of small silver 
coins struck in Bengal for the use of the English settlement at 
this place. On one side is the customary mark of the East India 
Company, with the date 1788, and, on the other, in the Arabic 
character the barbarous words (j~kjA c^-ji V>* 

" ' Jezirah Prans ab Wailis,' for 'Prince of Wales' Island.' 
The weight of the large coin is 4 dwts. 4| grs. and of the smaller, 
1 dwt. 18 grs. There is also a small specimen in copper with 
the same inscription and date of 1787." Further Ruding figures 2 
two coins bearing on the obverse the arms of the Company and 
the date 1810, and on the reverse the inscription ' Pulu Pinang,' 
surrounded by an ornamental border. 

In a letter from the Bombay Government to the Secretary to 
Government, Fort St. George, dated Bombay Castle, 12th August 
1824, it is stated that " The Honorable the Governor in Council 
has authorised those Bombay or Surat rupees termed Chapee, 
Soolakee, and Gabree rupees, which may be found in the consign- 
ments of treasure from Malabar, to be received at this presidency, 
the two first at a discount of 3 per cent, and the last at a discount 

1 Op. cit., p. 809, pi. liv, mccxxxviii. 

1 Op. cit., vol. ii, p. 405, pi. xvi, figs. 9, 10. 



59 

of 2 per cent, to cover the charges of recoinage." The meaning 
of the term ' Soolakee ' has been already explained (p. 45) and 
the terms ' Chapee ' and ' Gabree ' are explained in a letter from 
the Collector of South Canara to the Accountant-General, Fort St. 
George, dated 26th March 1825, wherein it is stated that " The 
Chapee rupees are so called on account of their being -impressed 
with a stamp, which they receive at the treasuries of the Native 
States where they have been circulated, and this stamp or chop 
does not in any way take away from their weight or value ; on 
the contrary it may be considered an additional proof of their 
being genuine, as it is only after being shroffed in those treasuries 
that the mark is affixed by the treasurers. 

" The Chapee-Soolakee has the additional mark of a nail, or 
other pointed instrument driven into the coin, to ascertain in the 
first instance that it is silver of the proper standard. 

" The Grabree rupee is so called from the circumstance of a 
small piece of the metal having been rubbed or knocked off the 
coin in the course of circulation. It has its origin in general in 
the rupee being originally short of weight from the mould not 
being completely filled, when the rupee was struck, and a small 
portion of silver equal to the quantity deficient being subsequently 
added on the part imperfectly stamped. This piece of silver not 
being fused with the metal is liable to be rubbed off, and the coin 
from which it has been removed is called Gabree, and is more or 
less deficient in weight according to the size of the piece of silver 
that has been displaced and lost, which, however, is always very 
small, seldom exceeding the value of ^f ^ part of a rupee, or 1 
per cent." 

The following correspondence bears on the currency at this 1829, 
time in the Tenasserim Provinces ; 

From 

THE CIVIL COMMISSIONER, 

Tenasserim Provinces, 

To 

THE CHIEF SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT, 

Fort William. 

I3tk January 1829. 

SIR, 

A number of Madras pagodas and other coins, amounting in 
value to Madras rupees 19,328-13-0, having been collected in 
the treasuries at Tavoy and Mergui, and the common currency of 
these provinces being Madras rupees, I beg leave to transmit 
these coins, which the Burmese inhabitants are unwilling to receive* 
in order that the same may be sent to the mint at Calcutta and 
coined into rupees. I beg to enclose a list of the different coins 
and a receipt of the same. 

I take this opportunity of soliciting that application may be 
made to the Government of Fort St. George to remit to me a 
supply of copper coinage to the extent in value of 20,000 Madras 



60 

rupees for the use of these provinces in which the want of some 
suitable currency is very much felt. 

I have, &c., &c., 

From 

THE SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT, 

Fort William, 

To 

THE SECRETARY TO GOVERNMENT, 

Fort St. George. 

23rd January 1829. 
SIB, 

I am directed by the Governor-General in Council to transmit 
to you the accompanying copy of a letter from Mr. A. D. Maingy, 
Civil Commissioner for the Tenasserim Provinces, dated the 13th 
instant, and to request that the Eight Honorable the Governor in 
Council will be pleased to order a supply of copper money to the 
extent of 20,000 Madras rupees to be consigned to that gentleman 
by the earliest convenient opportunity. 

I have, &c., &c., 

1833. I n 1833 a regulation (No. VII) was passed for altering the 
weight of the new Farrukhabdd rupee, and for assimilating it 
to the legal currency of the Madras and Bombay Presidencies, for 
adjusting the weight of the Calcutta sicca rupee, and for fixing 
a standard limit of weight for India. 

In the preamble of this regulation it is stated that " by a 
Resolution of the Governor- General in Council, dated the 10th of 
September 1824, the Farrukhabdd rupee was ordered to be coined 
of one hundred and eighty grains, one hundred and sixty-five fine 
and fifteen alloy, and was declared the legal currency of the 
Saugor and Nerbuddah territories. It is considered expedient to 
adopt this weight and standard for the Farrukhdbdd rupee at the 
Calcutta as well as at the Saugor mint, instead of that described 
in section V, Regulation XI, 1819, from which it differs very 
slightly, and to make the Farrukhabad currency correspond in 
weight and intrinsic value with the new currency of the Madras 
and Bombay Presidencies. It is likewise convenient to make a 
trifling alteration in the weight of the Calcutta sicca rupee, as 
prescribed by clause 1, section 1, Regulation XIV, 1818. It is 
further convenient to introduce the weight of the Farrukhabad 
rupee as the unit of a general system of weights for Government 
transactions throughout India under the native and well-known 
denomination of the tola." l 

1 Note on tola. From Yule and Burnell, op. cit. 

<( Tola, s., an Indian weight (chiefly of gold or silver) not of extreme antiquity. 
Hind, tola (Sansk. tuta, a balance, tul to lift up, to weigh). The Hindu scale is 
8 rattis =; 1 mftsha, 12 mdshas = 1 tola. Thns the tola was equal to 96 raft is. 

1563. " I knew a Secretary of Nizamoxa, a native of Coracon, who ate every 
day three tollas of opium, which is the weight of ten cruzados and a half." 

1610. " A tole is a rupee challany of silver, and ten of these toles are the 
value of one of gold." Hawkins, in Purchas, 1, 217. 

1615-16. " Two tole and a half being an ounce." Sir T. Roe, in Purchas, 
1,545. 



61 

In section ii of the same regulation it is stated that " the use 
of the sicca weight of 179'666, hitherto employed for the receipt 
of bullion at the mint, being in fact the weight of the Moorshedabad 
rupee of the old standard, which was assumed as the sicca currency 
of the Honorable Company's Provinces of Bengal, Behar and. 
Orissa, shall be discontinued, and in its place the following unit, 
to be called the tola, shall be introduced, which, from its imme- 
diate connection with the rupee of the Upper Provinces and of 
Madras and Bombay, will easily and speedily become universal 
through the British territories. 

" The tola or sicca weight to be equal to one hundred and 
eighty grains troy, and the other denominations of weight to be 
derived from this unit, according to the following scale, viz. : 

8 rattis = l masha = 15 troy grains. 

12 mashas=l tola =180 troy grains. 

80 tolas (sicca weight) = 1 seer = 2^ Ibs. troy. 

40 seers = 1 mun, or bazar maund = 100 Ibs. troy." 

This system of weights was ordered to be adopted at the Mints 
and Assay Offices of Calcutta and Saugor, respectively, in the 
adjustment and verification of all weights for Government or 
public purposes, sent thither for examination. 

The Mysore mint, which was abolished in 1843, was removed 
from Mysore to Bangalore in 1833, in which year it appears from 
the following letter to the Madras Government to have been the 
intention to have the copper coinage supplied by the Madras 
mint. 

COMMISSIONER'S OFFICE, 

Bangalore, 23rd August 1833. 
SIR, 

I am directed by the Commissioners for the affairs of Mysore 

to explain that, in making the application contained in 

my letter of the 20th June last, the Commissioners acted under 
an impression that an ample stock of copper coin received from 
Europe might probably be in store at Madras, and disposable for 
the use of Mysore. 

As this however is not the case, and as the Commissioners 
find that they can have the coin made at Bangalore (a course of 
proceeding which does not appear to them liable to any serious 
objection) on more advantageous terms than those on which it 
could be supplied from Madras, they direct me to state that it 
is not their intention to avail themselves of the offer, which the 
Eight Honorable the Governor in Council has had the goodness 
to make to them of the Madras mint on this occasion. 

I have, &c., &c., 

In 1833 the abolition of the Madras mint was recommended 
by the Calcutta Mint Committee, and the following extract from 
a letter, dated 29th January 1834, shows the feeling of the Court 
of Directors on this subject : 



62 

" The grounds upon which the Calcutta Mint Committee have 
come to the conclusion that the Madras mint may be abolished 
without injury to the public interests are as follows : It appears 
from their report that since 1882-83 the annual average importation 
of bullion into the territories of your Government by sea has been 
about 44 lakhs, while the average annual export has amounted to 
63 lakhs, showing an excess of export by sea to the amount of 19 
lakhs. From this fact they are led to conclude that the local 
currency, as far as required for domestic purposes, has not been 
derived from foreign bullion. They next proceed to inquire 
whether any large source of supply is furnished to your mint by 
the inland trade, and they state that the average import of bullion 
from the interior does not much exceed 4 lakhs of rupees a year, so 
that, unless the receipts from the Government revenue itself afford 
the materials of the coinage which takes place in the mint, very 
little of the business carried on there can arise from the coinage 
necessary to meet the internal demands of the Madras territories. 
The recoinage from the Government revenue they consider must 
be very small, as even in the Calcutta mint it does not amount to 
3 lakhs of rupees a year on an average. 

" The average amount of the coinage at the Madras mint from 
1815 to 1820 was 50 lakhs a year, and, from 1817 to 1828, 68 lakhs, 
but during the latter part of the period, viz., from May 1825 to 
May 1828 it was only 42 lakhs. 

" The net annual export of bullion from Madras, it has been seen, 
is 19 lakhs of rupees, and as there are no mines in the country and 
the import from the interior in the course of trade is only 4 lakhs 
a year, the immediate inference would be that nearly the whole of 
the net export of 1 9 lakhs must have been made in the current coin 
of the country. But it appears in fact to have been even much 
larger. The Calcutta Mint Committee state that the average 
annual export of silver coin, intending, it is to be presumed, 
Madras rupees, for the last 4 years has been nearly 50 lakhs ; 
consequently the bullion imported has been re-exported in the 
shape of coin, and the mint has been employed very unnecessarily 

in charging its at a gratuitous wastage and expense. The 

Committee then observe that the export of coin from Madras was 
chiefly on public account. In 1824-25 and 1825-26 large sums 
were sent to Ava for the purpose of paj'ing the Madras troops 
employed in the war, and a large supply goes also annually to 
Bombay, which, now that an effective mint has been established 
at that presidency, might as well be sent in the shape of bullion. 
The average amount of coinage required for domestic circulation 
under the Madras Presidency will therefore, it is said, not be more 
than 10 or 15 lakhs a year, which, if it were coined at the Calcutta 
mint and forwarded thence to Madras, would render it practicable 
to effect an annual saving, by abolishing the Madras mint, to the 
extent of at least 60,000 rupees a year. 

" We have carefully considered the facts and reasonings brought 
forward by the Calcutta Mint Committee upon this subject, and 
we think that the conclusion to which they have come is a just 
one. We cannot indeed admit the propriety of their statement 
that the Madras mint ' has been employed very unnecessarily in 



63 

changing the form of the bullion imported at a gratuitous wastage 
and expense,' because it is evident that the conversion of that 
bullion into coin was required for important public purposes ; but 
it seems quite clear that this coinage may for the future be 
conducted at the Calcutta and Bombay mints without leading to 
any material inconvenience, and at a great paving of expense to 
the State. Such an arrangement has become still more desirable 
than ever from this circumstance, of which you probably are aware, 
that the machinery of the new Calcutta and Bombay mints (the 
erection of which has occasioned such a large outlay of money) 
was fabricated upon a scale sufficient to enable those two mints 
combined to supply the whole of the coinage necessary for British 
India, and the present coinage at the new Calcutta mint is not 
by any means so extensive as to employ the powers of which the 
machinery is capable. In addition to the facts stated by the 
Calcutta mint as above referred to, we observe by a more recent 
account received from you that the value of the coinage in your 
mint, which had fallen in the years 1825 1828 to an average of 42 
lakhs of rupees, was in 1828-29 not quite 27 lakhs, and in 1829-30 
was little more than 22 lakhs." 

In obedience to the orders of Government, in consequence of 
this letter, the Madras Mint Committee called on the mercantile 
community, both European and Native, requesting the former to 
state " whether, in the event of the accommodation which the mint 
has heretofore afforded being withdrawn, it would, in their opinion, 
affect the commercial interest of the Madras Presidency, and, if so, 
in what manner and to what extent. The native merchants were 
requested to state whether they thought the abolition of the 
mint would injure the trade of the port, and in what manner and 
to what extent." The concurrent opinion of the entire mercantile 
community, with the exception of Messrs. Parry, Dare and Co., 
was that very serious injury would be done to the commercial 
interests of the presidency by abolishing the mint, and the Mint 
Committee came to the conclusion that " the existence of the mint 
is essential to the interests of the public ; that its continuance is 
inseparably connected with the prosperity of this settlement, and 
necessary to the due administration of its finances ; and, should it 
be abolished, and Government should find it expedient to re-estab- 
lish it, such a measure would be attended with much expense and 
difficulty, arising from the dispersion of the present establishment 
and the impracticability hereafter to collect them again in the 
public service, or to find properly qualified persons to supply their 
place." 

In 1834 pattern rupees were struck, bearing the following 1834. 
devices and legends : 

1. Obverse. Bust of the King (William iv) r, and legend 
GULIELMUS. mi. D.o. BKiTT. EX. iND. REX. surrounded by & wavy 
line. 

Reverse. In the centre ONE RUPEE with lotus flower above, 
and date 1834 below, surrounded by a wreath; around EAST INDIA 
COMPANY, and the value in Persian, Nagari, and Bengali. 

(pi. xx-7.) 



64 

2. Similar to No. 1, except the legend on the obveres GULTEL- 

MUS. 1III. D.G. BR1TANNIAR. REX. F.D. 

3. Similar to No. 2, but thicker and smaller. 

4. Similar to No. 1, except the legend on the obverse WILLIAM. 

IV. KING. 

5. Obverse. Similar to No. 4. 

Reverse. A lion and palm tree and the legend BRITISH INDIA. 

6. Obverse. A lion and palm tree, and the legend BRITISH 
INDIA. 

Reverse. In the centre ONE RUPEE with lotus flower above, 
and date 1834 below, surrounded by a wreath ; around EAST INDIA 
COMPANY, and the value in Persian, Nagari, and Bengali. 

1335 On March 31st, 1835, a letter was addressed to the Governor- 

General by the Calcutta Mint Committee relative to the promul- 
gation of a new uniform coinage for British India, in which it is 
stated that : " We have now the honor to submit specimens of 
a rupee bearing the device of Flaxman's lion, selected by Lord 
"William Bentinck as in his lordship's opinion the best adopted for 
the coin of British India. 

" 2. The Mint Master explains in his letter accompanying these 
specimens, that, in consequence of their being struck from the 
matrix die and not in the regular coinage presses, they are 
defective on the edge for want of the collar. 

" 3. Mr. Saunders has also at our request furnished specimens 
of the King's head rupee, in order that your Honor in Council may 
judge of the two together. One of the latter specimens has the 
straight milling of the English coin, which we are inclined to 
prefer to the plain edge. 

" 4. The opinion we formerly ventured to express in favor of 
the device of His Majesty's head is by no means lessened by the 
present comparison. An emblematical design, however appropriate 
it may be for the reverse of a handsome medal or medallic coin, 
such as we would make of the gold mohur, seems to us by no 
means so well suited for the obverse of the current coins as the 
effigy of the reigning monarch, and in regard to the danger of 
forgery there can be no doubt that a correct drawing of the human 
head, which all the world is in the constant habit of observing so 
as to tell at a glance the slightest difference of feature, is both 
easier to recognise and more difficult to imitate than the contour 
of an animal seldom or never seen by the majority of mankind. 
This argument cannot be better illustrated than by the fact that 
the lion was engraved in twenty-six days, while the head occupied 
upwards of one month and ten days. 

" 5. "We beg leave to submit an impression in pure gold of the 
King's head with the lion as a reverse, proposed as a double gold 
mohur of 360 grains standard. 

"6. Captain Forbes has submitted a memorandum on the 
expediency of requesting the Honorable Court of Directors to 
procure well-executed matrix dies of such devices as may finally 
be adopted from Mr. Wyon, the Chief Engraver of the London 
Mint. 



65 

11 7. Tliis would doubtless be an excellent guide for our native 
engravers, but we do not think it necessary to suspend the intro- 
duction of the new device until it is obtained, the present matrices 
being in our opinion quite good enough for the purpose. 

" 8. It would be highly desirable, however, to procure a good 
collection of modern medals and coins from England to serve as 
models for our native school of die engravers, and it will be 
particularly requisite to be furnished from the London mint with 
proof impressions of the King's head, especially on the occasion of 
a new sovereign. The present head is copied from an English 
gold coin procured in the bazar, and considerably rubbed on the 
surface. 

"9. It may be satisfactory to inform your Honor in Council 
that we have ascertained from Colonel Presgrave, Mint and Assay 
Master at Saugor, that he will be able to strike the new coin 
in his mint, if provided with collar dies instead of those now 
f urnished to him. 

" 10. There is then no obstacle to the introduction at once of 
the new currency, if only reasonable time be allowed for the pre- 
paration or multiplication of dies (of which unfortunately the 
supply on hand is small). The coinage of sicca rupees has been for 
some time suspended as a preliminary measure. 

"11. With reference to this last point and to the adoption of 
the 180 grain rupee as the universal coin of British India, we 
beg leave to call the attention of your Honor in Council to the 
expediency of changing at the same time the rupee of account in 
the general books of this presidency. 

" 12. The maintaining of the sicca rupee in account after its 
coinage has been abolished would be evidently impolitic, and even 
now, from the erroneous valuation given to the Farrukhabad 
rupee in exchange (104^ to 100 siccas), considerable inconveni- 
ence is experienced in adjusting accounts between the Mint and 
the Accountant-General's offices, and the Collectors of the upper 
provinces. Should the new unit be adopted, it will be advisable 
to convert all sicca values and amounts into it at the intrinsic par 
of ^-f to avoid the confusion of the fictitious exchange hitherto 
employed." 

In reply to this letter the Secretary to Government was 
ordered to inform the Mint Committee that : 

" 1. The rupee having on one side the device of His Majesty's 
head, and on the reverse the inscription EAST INDIA COMPANY, 
together with the nominal value of the coin in English, Persian 
and Nagari, and the representation of a lotus flower and mj^rtle 
wreath, has been approved by the Governor- General in Council 
as the model for the future coinage of the rupee of British India. 
Your suggestion for introducing on this coin the straight milling 
of the English currency is also approved and sanctioned. 

" 2. The Governor-General in Council does not contemplate 
suspending the introduction of the new device until matrix dies 
can be obtained from England. You will be therefore pleased to 
communicate with the Madras, Bombay aud Saugor mints, with 



66 

the view of effecting a change in the rupee currency throughout 
British India with all convenient expedition. 

" 3. It will be, of course, necessary as subservient to the measure 
to change the rupee of account on the general books of this pre- 
sidency as suggested by you. The Governor-General in Council, 
on the adoption of the new unit, approves of the conversion of all 
ticca value and amounts into it at the intrinsic par of yf . 

" 4. I am directed to call for further reports and suggestions 
from you as to a corresponding change in the gold and copper 
currency cf British India, which it will be advisable to submit 
at your earliest convenience." 

In a further letter from Government, the Mint Committee of 
Calcutta was informed that "It has this day (22nd April l. s -'!.">) 
resolved to inscribe on the reverse of the new silver coinage the 
denomination of value in the English and Persian languages only, 
and to have no difference whatever in the dies of the several pre- 
sidencies. The year (1835) of the die will represent the era of the 
alteration of the coins, and will not need to be changed until a new 
coin shall be ordered to be struck. On the face of the coin with 
His Majesty's head it will be sufficient to stamp the name of the 
Sovereign WILLIAM iv, without the word King." But in a further 
letter, dated 13th May 1835, it is stated that " the selection of 
the Governor-General in Council has fallen upon the specimen with 
the inscription WILLIAM iv KING, as none of the others without 
the word King are approved. The above legend is accordingly to 
be adopted for the obverse of the new coin." 

The details of the new coinage were finally laid down by 
Act XVII, 1835, wherein it was enacted " that from the 1st day 
of September 1835, the undermentioned silver coins only shall be 
coined at the mints within the territories of the East India Com- 
pany ; a rupee to be denominated the Company's rupee ; a half 
rupee, a quarter rupee, and a double rupee ; and the weight of the 
said rupee shall be 180 grains troy, and the standard shall be as 
follows : 

}^ or 165 grains of pure silver ; 
-y 1 ^ or 15 grains of alloy ; 

and the other coins shall be of proportionate weight and of the 
same standard. 

" And that these coins shall bear on the obverse the head and 
the name of the reigning sovereign of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and on the reverse the designation of 
the coin in English and Persian, and the words EAST INDIA COM- 
PANY in English with such embellishment as shall from time to 
time be ordered by the Governor- General in Council. 

" And that the Company's rupee, half rupee, and double rupee 
shall be a legal tender in satisfaction of all engagements, provided 
the coin shall not have lost more than 2 per cent, in weight, and 
provided it shall not have been clipped or filed, or have been 
defaced otherwise than by use. 

" And that the said rupee shall be received as equivalent to the 
Bombay, Madras, Farrukhabad and Sonat rupees, and to fifteen- 
sixteenths of the Calcutta sicca inpee ; and the half and double 



67 

rupee respectively shall be received as equivalent to the half and 
double of the abovernentioned Bombay, Madras, Farrukhabdd and 
Souat rupees, and to the half and double of fifteen -sixteenths of 
the Calcutta sicca rupee 

" And that the undermentioned gold coins only shall hence- 
forth be coined at the mints within the territories of the East 
India Company : 

First, a gold mohur of 15 rupee-piece, of the weight of 180 
grains troy, and of the following standard, viz. : 
-j-^- or 165 grains of pure gold, 
y'j- or 1 5 grains of alloy. 

Second, a five-rupee piece equal to a third of a gold mohur. 

Third, a ten-rupee piece equal to two-thirds of a gold mohur 

Fourth, a thirty-rupee piece, or double gold mohur. 

" And the three last-mentioned coins shall be of the same 
standard with the gold mohur, and of proportionate weight. 

" And that these gold coins shall bear on the obverse the head 
and name of the reigning sovereign of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and on the reverse the designation of 
the coin in* English and Persian, and the words EAST INDIA 
COMPANY in English, with such embellishment as shall from time 
to time be ordered by the Governor-General in Council, which 
shall always be different from that of the silver coinage. 

" And that no gold coin shall henceforward be a legal tender 
of payment in any of the territories of the East India Company. 

" And that it shall be competent to the Governor-General in 
Council, in his executive capacity, to direct the coining and issuing 
of all coins authorised by this Act ; to prescribe the devices and 
inscriptions of the copper coins issued from the mints in the said 
territories, and to establish, regulate, and abolish mints, any law 
hitherto in force to the contrary notwithstanding." 

In the same year (1835) an Act (STo. XXI) was passed, by 
which it was enacted " that from the 20th day of December 1835 
the following copper coins only shall be issued from any mint 
within the Presidency of Bengal : 

1 . A pice weighing . . . . ..100 grs. troy, 

2. A double pice weighing . . . . 200 ,, 

3. A pice, or one-twelfth of an auna 

weighing 33|- 

with such devices as shall be fixed for the same by the Governor- 
General in Council." 

By the same Act it was further enacted " that from the said 
20th of December 1835, the said pice shall be legal tender for 
^-f of the Company's rupee, and the said double pice for ^ of the 
Company's rupee and the said pie for T ^j of the Company's rupee. 
Provided always that, after the said 20th of December 1835, no 
copper coin shall in any part of the territories of the East India 
Company be legal tender, except for fractions of a rupee." 

In the following year (1836) it was enacted by Act XIII, that 1836. 
" from the 1st January 1838, the Calcutta sicca rupee shall cease 
to be a legal tender in discharge of any debt, but shall be received 
by the Collectors of land revenue, and at all other treasuries, by 
weight, and subject to a charge of 1 per cent, for recoinage. 



68 

" And that from the 1st of June 1836, Section V, Regulation 
XXV, 1817, of the Bengal Code that the pice struck at the mints 
of Benares and Farrukhabdd agreeably to the provisions of 
Regulation X, 1809, and Regulation VII, 1814, and Regulation 
XXI, 1816, shall be considered as circulating equally with the 
pice of Calcutta coinage throughout the provinces of Bengal, Behar 
and in Orissa, and shall in like manner be received as a legal 
tender in payment of the fractional parts of a rupee of the local 
currency at the rate of sixty-four pice for each rupee, shall be 
repealed ; and the said pice shall be a legal tender only within the 
provinces and places for which they were respectively coined " 

In a letter from the Government of India to the Madras Mint 
Committee, dated 17th December 1836, in which the question, 
whether the Madras mint should be restored temporarily or per- 
manently and for the coinage of what metal, is discussed at great 
length, it is stated that "the coinage of silver having been shewn 
not to be necessary on the one hand and of doubtful practicability 
on the other, the only question that remains respects the copper 
coinage of the Madras Presidency, the supply of which is stated 
to be deficient in the extreme. The coinage of copper has been 
suspended in the Calcutta mint for two reasons -first, because of 
the urgent demand for silver in replacement of the sicca currency 
of Bengal, and secondly, because the price of copper has risen so 
much beyond previous averages, that the coinage ceased to yield 

the same profit as heretofore The mint of Calcutta 

having an excess of power available, and the expectation of 
ability to purchase copper on reasonable terms, the question recurs, 
whether this coinage shall be prosecuted for replacement of the 
existing copper currency of Bengal and the North- West Provinces, 
or part of the coinage shall be diverted to supply the wants of 
Madras. 

" The determination of this question must rest on the decision 
that may be come to in respect to the expediency and possibility 
of continuing in circulation the old pyce, which the Government 
have latterly restored to credit. If this currency be not recalled 
and displaced, a small addition to the existing currency is all that 
can be required to keep the copper circulation steady at its legal 
tender par. But, if the copper currency of Bengal is to be entirely 
renovated, there will be no spare power in the mint to give to the 
striking of copper for Madras. 

" The Right Honorable the Governor-General of India in 
Council is inclined at present to the opinion that it will be 
necessary eventually to call in and replace the old pyce of the 
former Calcutta mint. On this account, therefore, as well as on 
the ground that the coinage of copper can be commenced at Madras 
at a small cost and without delay, Rs. 2,000 only being required 
to set up the machinery and an establishment to work it, and 
because also there will be no difficulty or loss hereafter in stopping 
such a coinage, when it shall be no longer required, His Lordship 
in Council sanctions the proposition of Mr. Braddock that this 
coinage shall immediately be undertaken with the means available, 
provided the copper can be purchased at the price stated as that 



69 

of tenders made to this mint, viz., Us. 42 per Indian mun l or 
100 Ibs. troy, or, if the metal can be furnished from the Govern- 
ment stores." 

From 1837 till 1840, during which time the mint machinery 
was undergoing repairs, the Madras records are silent ; but it 
appears from a letter from the Mint Master, dated 17th February 
1840, that the repairs were at that time so far advanced as to 
render it necessary that the preparation of the dies for the ensuing 
coinage should be commenced as soon as possible, so that the 
coinage might be proceeded with as soon as possible. It was 
about the same time pointed out that new Company's silver rupees, 
half, and quarter rupees, were the coins which it would be most 
desirable to strike off on the first opening of the mint, simultane- 
ously with copper single pie pieces. 

In a letter from the Calcutta Mint Committee, dated 14th 1839. 
December 1839, it is stated that " Captain Smith in his report to 
the Madras Government having impugned the artistical execution 
of the coinage of this mint, so far as concerns the device of the 
Company's rupee hitherto coined, in the accuracy of which we, as 
well as the Mint Master, entirely agree, the Mint Master has re- 
minded us that, in the original communications to the Honorable 
Court in 1819, the necessity for a properly-qualified die engraver 
was strongly pointed out to the Honorable Court, and that the 
appointment of an engraver, consequent upon that representation, 
was then not made only because the mint was not sufficiently 
advanced to require his services. We think it our duty to state 
that we have had every reason to be satisfied with our present 
engraver, of whose efforts to produce an effigy of Her present 
Majesty from a sovereign we have the honor to forward a specimen ; 
but, as he is at present the only competent engraver available, 
and has resisted every solicitation of the officers of the mint to 
instruct others in his art who might take up his duty when he 
was unwell or eventually succeed him, we are bound in duty to 
declare our conviction that it has become absolutely necessary that 
an able engraver should be sent out by the Honorable Court to 
take upon him, jointly with Kasheeuauth, the duty of die en- 
graver, and of preparing plates of steel or copper as the Mint 
Master and the Accountant-Gen eral for the time being shall direct, 
and to instruct such persons in the art of engraving to be his assis- 
tants and successors, as the Mint Committee for the time being 
shall direct to be placed under his instructions for these purposes." 

By proclamation, dated November 18th, 1840, the Governor- 1840. 
General in Council was pleased to notify that " from and after the 

1 Note from Yule and Burnett, op. cit. 

" The values of the man as a weight, even in modern times, have varied 
immensely, i.e., from little more than 2 Ibs. to upwards of 160. The ' Indian 
niaund ' which is the standard of weight in British India, is of 40 sers, each aer 
being divided into 16 chitaks ; and this is the general scale of sub-division in the 
local weights of Bengal and Upper and Central India, though the value of the ser 
varies. That of the standard ser is 80 tolas or rupee-weights and thus the maund 
= 82 f- Ibs. avoirdupois. The Bombay maund (or man) of 40 sers = 28 Ibs. ; the 
Madras one of 40 sers = 25 Ibs. The Palloda man of Ahmadnagar contained 64 
sers, and was = 163^ Ibs. This is the largest man we find in ' the Useful Tables.' 
The smallest Indian man again is that of Colachy in Travancore and = 18 Ibs. 
12 oz. 13 drs." 



70 

llth day of November 1840 iu respect to the mint of Calcutta, 
nud from and after the 1st day of April 1841 in respect to the 
mint of Fort St. George and Bombay, those parts of Act XVII of 
1835 which were suspended by Act XXXI of 1837 (on the acces- 
sion of Queen Victoria), directing that certain silver coins issued 
from the mints within the territories of the East India Company 
shall bear on the obverse the head of the reigning sovereign of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, will be again in 
force ; and that the device of the silver coins which shall be coined 
from and after the said dates, respectively, in the mints of India, 
in conformity with Acts XVII of 1835 and XXI of 1838, will be 
as Act XVII of 1835 enacts, viz. : 

On the obverse the head of Her Majesty Victoria with the 

WOrds VICTORIA QUEEN. 

On the rererw the denomination of the coin in English and 
Persian in the centre encircled by a wreath and around the margin 
the words EAST INDIA COMPANY, 1840. 

" The coin will be milled on the edge with a serrated or up- 
right milling, like the rupee now current bearing the head of his 
late Majesty William IV. 

" The weight, standard, fineness and value of the Company's 
rupees as defined in the Act are here repeated. Weight, 180 
grains troy, or one tolah. Standard quality eleven-twelfths silver 
one-twelfth alloy value. The same as the Company's rupee of 
1835, the Madras, Bombay, Farrukhabad and Sonat rupee, and 
equal to fifteen-sixteenths of the late sicca rupee. 

" The other silver coins authorised to be issued from the Gov- 
ernment mint by Act XVII of 1835, and Act XXI of 1838, viz. : 
double, half, and quarter rupees, and two-anna pieces will bear 
in all respects a due proportion to this rupee." 

1841. By a further proclamation, dated February 10th, 1841, the 

Governor- General in Council was pleased to notify " that the 
gold coins henceforth to be issued from the Government mints 
at the different presidencies in India in conformity with Act 
XVII of 1835 shall bear the following device : 

" On the obverse the head of Her Majesty Queen Victoria with 
the words VICTORIA QUEEN, 1841. 

" On the reverse a lion and a palm tree in the centre, with the 
designation of the coin in English and Persian below, and around 
the margin the words EAST INDIA COMPANY. 

" The coin will be milled on the edge like the rupee. The 
weight and standard will be according to the Act as follows : 
Weight of the gold mohur or fifteen-rupee piece, 180 grs. troy ; 
standard of ditto, -j-^- or 165 grs. pure gold, -Jj or 15 grs. alloy. 

" The other gold coins, viz., the five-rupee, ten-rupee, and 
thirty-rupee or double gold mohur pieces, will be of the same 
standard as the gold mohur or fifteen-rupee piece, and of pro- 
portionate weight." 

1843. In a letter, dated 7th April 1843, the Assay Master to the 
Madras Mint wrote to the effect that he once proposed to 
Lord William Bentinck, when Governor- General, a spelter or zinc 
coinage of money which, as the method of rendering that metal 
malleable had become generally known, might have been effected 



71 

at a small expense, and been made with considerable profit to the 
Company, superseded the use of cowrie shells, and most likely 
been melted down to form brass, as the copper was in various 
parts of the Company's dominions, thus affording a continued 
source of profit to the Company. 

By Act XIII, 1844, it was enacted " that, from the 1st day of 1844. 
August 1844, the Trisoolee pice struck for the province of Benares, 
under the provisions of Regulations X of 1801) and VII of 1814, 
and at the Saugor mint, shall cease to be a legal tender within 
the province of Benares. 

" And that until the said 1st day of August 1844, such 
Trisoolee pice shall be received on account of the Government, 
and shall be exchanged by take (that is to say, every Trisoolee 
pice paid in shall be received as one Company's pice and one 
Company's pice shall be given for every Trisoolee pice presented 
for exchange) at such treasuries or other places within the pro- 
vince of Benares as shall be pointed out for that purpose in any 
proclamation of the Lieut enant-Governor of the North- Western 
I 3 rovinces 

" And that it shall be lawful for the said Lieutenant- Governor, 
if he shall see fit, to order that in any case one Company's rupee 
shall be given for every sixty-four Trisoolee pice so presented for 
exchange, and that in every case one Company's rupee shall be 
given for every sixty-four Trisoolee pice accordingly." 

In 1844 a further Act (No. XXII) was passed " for regulating 
the copper coinage of the mints in the territories of the East 
India Company," by which it was enacted " that from and after 
the passing of this Act the following copper coins only shall be 
issued from any mint within the territories of the East India 
Company : 

1. A pice weighing ... ... ... 100 grs. troy. 

2. Double pice weighing ... ... 200 

3. A pie or one-twelfth of an anna 

weighing 33J 

with such devices as shall be fixed for the same by the Governor- 
General in Council. 

" And that from and after the passing of this Act the said 
pice shall be a legal tender throughout the territories of the East 
India Company for ^ of the Company's rupee, and the said 
double pice for -^ of the Company's rupee, and the said pie for 
y^r of the Company's rupee." 

In a minute by a member of the Madras Mint Committee on 1845. 
the question of the advisability of the practice of receiving 
uncurrent coins at the provincial treasuries, dated 1st April 1845, 
it is stated that " the practice of receiving uncurrent coins at the 
provincial treasuries at certain rates of exchange has existed 
almost from the period of the assumption of the country, and was 
adopted mainly, if not entirely, with the view of displacing the 
old currency by the new. ... It would be desirable to ask the 
opinion of the Board of Revenue whether they considered the 
refusal generally in all districts to receive a foreign currency at 
the provincial treasuries in payment of revenue would be attended 
with any prejudicial effects ; if not, I should make the refusal a 
general one. I would propose, however, that the prohibition should 



72 

be confined to the currency of native states and foreign European. 
The old Arcot rupees and all former coins issued from the Com- 
pany's mints, including star pagodas and the Company's former 
rupees, as well as Bombay and sicca rupees, should continue to 
be received as hitherto. The Bombay-Soorat rupee, in which 
coin a considerable portion of the land revenue of the Bellary 
district is paid, is now classed, and I think improperly so, as 
uncurrent coin, and these should continue to be received at par, as 
they have hitherto been. We should under this system avoid all 
the evils attendant on the iniquitous practice adopted by Native 
Governments of debasing their coin from time to time, while all 
coins which have been issued from provinces now forming an 
integral portion of the British territory in India will continue to 
be received, till they wholly disappear from circulation. 

" I would except, however, one coin from the general rule, 
namely, Spanish dollars. The rate of conversion at which they 
are received yields a large profit on recoinage. They are likely 
to be in demand at any time for remittance to China or oil 
Eastern settlements, and they are by far the best form of bullion 
to send to England, if the Home treasury should be in need of 
specie remittances from this country. I think in 1838-18-39 the 
Court of Directors particularly desired to have Spanish dollars in 
such cases." 

In the same year a proposal was before the Madras Mint 
Committee as to the coinage of silver single anna pieces for the 
Ceylon Government. 

1851. In March 1851 a proposal was made by the Assay Master, 
Fort St. George, that, in consequence of the general complaint of 
the want of currency suited to the exigencies of the lower orders 
throughout the territories of the East India Company, a zinc, 
or as it was commercially termed spelter coinage, representing the 
hundredth part of an anna, should be established, which would 
afford a profit equal to that of copper coinage, and would, it was 
thought, in time, supersede the use of cowries, the value of which 
fluctuated to the detriment of the vast multitude among whom it 
was current. It was also proposed that a trifling alteration might 
be made with regard to the copper coinage, a piece of the value of 
the tenth of an anna being substituted for the pie, and one of the 
value of the fifth of an anna for the three-pie pieces. But, as the 
abolition of the Madras mint was at that time under consideration, 
the proposals were not entertained. 

A letter from the Mint Master, Calcutta, to the Mint Master, 
Madras, dated 30th June 1851, states that " in continuation of 
my letter intimating the dispatch of two matrices and six punches 
for the Queen Yictoria rupee, I have now the honour to intimate 
that I have this day forwarded to the General Post Office for dispatch 
to you one box containing three obverse and three reverse punches 
for the Queen Victoria half rupee, as also three obverse and three 
reverse punches for the Queen Victoria quarter rupee. 

" The obverse of the rupee punches last supplied and of the 
half rupee punches now forwarded have been obtained from 
original matrices engraved by Mr. Wyon of the Royal Mint, 
London, and transmitted to Calcutta by the Honorable the Court 
of Directors. The punches for the reverse have, however, been 



73 

struck from matrices engraved by the Calcutta mint engraver, 
but are the same iu design as those executed by Mr. Wyon, only 
having such a slight convexity as was found requisite to enable 
the dies formed by them to bring up the impressions on the coins. 
" The punches for the quarter rupee have been obtained from 
the original English matrix, and they will therefore require to 
have the last two figures of the year (40) sunk in the die after it 
has been multiplied. 

" The dies now in use in the mint for the whole, the half, and 
the quarter Victoria rupee bear date 1840, as has been considered 
desirable, to prevent the shroffs from charging a discount on the 
coins bearing this date, as they would do if the coins now issuing 
bore the date of the present year. 

" Punches for the eight-rupee or the two-anna silver piece will 
be ready for dispatch by the next steamer." 

In Notification, No. 26, dated Fort William, 22nd December 1852. 
1852, it is stated that " by section 9, Act XVII of 1835, of the 
Government of India, it was enacted, that thenceforward no gold 
coin should be a legal tender of payment in any of the territories 
of the East India Company ; and, accordingly, gold ceased from 
the date of the passing of the Act to be a legal tender of payment 
in the Company's territories in India. 

"But, by a proclamation issued on the 13th January 1841, 
officers in charge of public treasuries were authorized freely to 
receive gold coins, struck in conformity with the provisions of the 
same Act XVII of 1835, at the rates indicated by the denomina- 
tion of the pieces, until they should have passed certain limits of 
lightness, set forth in a table published with the proclamation, or 
until farther orders ; and gold coins have been thus received in 
liquidation of public demands up to the present date. 

" Notice is now given that on and after that date 

(1st January 1853), no gold coin will be received on account of 
payments due, or in any way to be made to the Grovernment .... 
Grold will continue as heretofore to be received into any of the 
mints .... for coinage, under the Act and rules at present in force 
for the coinage of gold, but mint certificates for gold coins will be 
discharged in gold only, and no such certificate for gold will be 
accepted in any public treasury in liquidation of public demands, 
or on account of any payment to the Grovernment whatever." 

In 1854 an Act was passed " to amend Act No. XXI of 1853 1854. 
and Act No. XXII of 18 i4, and to authorise the issue of half 
pice," by which it was enacted that " after the passing of this Act, 
copper coins to be called half pice may be issued from any of the 
mints in the territories under the Government of the East India 
Company. 

" A half pice shall weigh fifty grains troy, and shall be a 
legal tender in any part of the said territories for T ^th part of 
the Company's rupee, but shall not be a legal tender, except foi? 
fractions of a rupee." 

Repealed by Act No. XIII, 1862. 

K 



74 

1858. The charter of the Company was renewed for the last time in 
1853, only, however, for so long as Parliament should ordain, and 
the number of Directors was reduced, and their patronage as 
regards appointments to the Civil Service was taken away, so as to 
make way for the principle of open competition. Five years later, 
on the 1st November 1858, at a durbar held at Allahabad, the 
royal proclamation was sent forth, which announced that Queen 
Victoria had assumed the Government of India, and so the career 
of the East India Company terminated after an existence of more 
than two-and-a-half centuries. 

1862. So much of Act XVII, 1835, as provided that only the silver 
coins therein mentioned shall be coined, &c., and that they shall 
bear the words EAST INDIA COMPANY ; also Act XXXI, 1837 ; Act 
XXII, 1844 ; and Act XI, 1854, except as to coin already issued, 
were repealed by Act No. XIII of 1862, by which it was enacted 
as follows : 

I. From the first day of November 1862, so much of the 1st 
and 2nd sections of Act XVII of 1835 (relating to gold and silver 
coinage'), as provides that only the silver coins therein mentioned 
shall be coined at the mints within the territories of the East 
India Company, and that such coins shall bear on the reverse the 
words EAST INDIA COMPANY; also Act XXXI of 1837 (relating to 
coinage}, Act XXI of 1838 (relating to the silver com), Act XX II 
of 1844, and Act XI of 1854 (relating to the copper coin}, shall be 
repealed, except as to any Act already done, or coin already coined 
or issued under the same. 

II. From the first day of November 1 862, except as provided 
by Act XVI of 1847 (for establishing a copper currency in the 
Settlements of Penan g, Singapore and Malacca), in respect of cents, 
half cents and quarter cents, no silver or copper coins, except 
those mentioned below, shall be coined at the mints in British 
India : 

Silver Coins. 

A rupee to be called the Government rupee. 

A half rupee. 

A quarter rupee or four-anna piece. 

An eighth of a rupee or two-anna piece. 

Copper Coins. 

A double pice or half anna. 

A pice or quarter anna. 

A pie, being one-third of a pice, or one-twelfth of an anna. 

III. The rupee so coined shall be of the same weight and 
standard as those provided for the Company's rupee by the said 
Act XVII of 1835, that is to say, the weight shall be 180 grains 
troy, and the standard as follows : 

T-jth or 165 grains of pure silver. 
T '^th or 15 grains of alloy. 

The other silver coins shall be of proportionate weight and of 
the same standard. 



75 

IV. The copper coins so coined shall be of the weight pre- 
scribed for coins of the same denominations respectively by Acts 
XXI of 1835 and XI of 1854, that is to say : 

The double pice shall weigh . . . . 200 grs. troy. 

The pice 100 

The half pice 50 

The pie 33J 

V. Until the Governor- General in Council shall otherwise 
order under the power hereinafter reserved, the silver and copper 
coins so coined shall bear on the obverse the likeness and the 
name of Queen Victoria and the inscription VICTORIA QUEEN, 
and on the reverse the designation of the coins in English, filled 
by the word INDIA, with such date and embellishments on each 
coins as the Governor- General in Council shall from time to time 
direct. 



II-CATALOGUE OF COINS IN THE 
MADRAS MUSEUM. 



79 



ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY. 



Fo. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



1722 

1733 
1733 
1736 
1737 

1755 

1755 

1755 
1756 

176* 
176* 
177* 
177* 

1777 



A. COINS WITH DATE. 
MADEAS COPPEE. 



' 
' 



Orb and cross inscribed 

surrounded by a radiate 
border. 

[PI. i, 1.] 

Bale-mark of the Company. 






Orb and cross inscribed 

. > ' 
surrounded by a radiate 

border. 



Date 1722, with wavy line 
above and below, sur- 
rounded by a beaded 



circle. 



Date 1733. 



[PI. i, 2.] 



[PI. i, 3.] 



Date 1736. 

[PI. i, 4.] 

Date 1737, surrounded by a 
beaded circle. 

[PI. i. 5.] 

Date 1755, with wavy line 
above and below. 

[PI. i, 6.] 



but traces of a 

beaded circle. 



but date *756. 

[Pi. i, 7.] 

but date 176*. 



but date 177*. 



BOMBAY COPPEE DOUBLE PICE. 



A crown with BOMB 1777 
below it. 



Bale-mark of the Company. 

[PI. IV, 1.] 



80 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


KeverBe. 






A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 






BOMBAY COPPEE DOUBLE PICE continued. 


16-25 


177* 


but date indistinct. 


[PI. IV, 2.] 






BOMBAY COPPEE PICE. 


26 


1777 


[ascription 1 PICE BOMBAY 
1777. 


Bale-mark of the Company. 

[PI. XT, 3.] 


27-35 


177* 


,, but date indistinct. 


[PI. xi, 13.] 






MADEAS COPPEE. 


36 


1786 


c c 
Orb and cross inscribed _ 

. ' 


Date 178(5, with wavy line 
above and below. 






surrounded by a radiate 
border. 


[PI. i, 8.] 






BOMBAY 20 CASH. 






(a). GILT PKOOF. 


37 


1791 


Bale-mark of the Company 
with date 1791 below. 


A balance with the word 
JjkC between the scales. 






(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 






(5). BRONZE PROOF. 


38 


1791 












BOMBAY 15 CASH. 






BRONZE PROOF. 


39 


1791 


t> 


ii 


40 


1791 












BOMBAY 10 CASH. 






COPPER. 


41 


1791 


ii 


[PI. i,9.] 



81 



No. Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



1791 



1791 



1794 



1794 



1794 



1794 



1794 



A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 

BOMBAY 5 CASH. 

(a). GILT PROOF. 

Bale-mark of the Company A balance with the word 
with date 1791 below. J^ between the scales. 

(5). BRONZE PROOF. 



BOMBAY 20 CASH. 
(a). COPPER. 



(i). GILT PROOF. 



BOMBAY 10 CASH, 
(a). COPPER. 



(i). GILT PROOF. 



BOMBAY 5 CASH. 
GILT PROOF. 



in. i, 10.] 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 






MADRAS -A- RUPEE. 1 






(). COPPER. 


49 


1794 


The arms of the Company 

with 48 TO ONE RUPEE 

below. The motto AUSPI- 

CIO REGIS ET SENATUS 

ANGLIC incuse upon a 
broad rim. 


Bale-mark of the Company. 
The legend UNITED EAST 
INDIA COMPANY 1794 incuse 
upon a broad rim. 






The edge inscribed with the legend ENGLISH UNITED 

EAST INDIA COMPANY. 






(i). GILT PROOF. 


50 


1794 


. 









(0). BRONZE PROOF. 


51 


1794 





" 






MADRAS *Hr RUPEE. 






BRONZE PROOF. 


52 


1794 


,, but 96 TO 

ONE RUPEE. 


" 






MADRAS - 4 V RUPEE. 






COPPER. 


53 


1797 


Same as No. 49. 


Same as No 49 except 
date. 






MADRAS A RUPEE. 






(0). COPPER. 


64 


1797 


Same as No. 52. 


Same as No. 52 except 
date. 


1 This and the following coins of the same type are attributed by 
weight to the ' Cirkara in der Prasidentschaft Madras,' and Atkins 
writes concerning them : " In the following series an attempt has 
evidently been made to assimilate the Mohammedan with the Hindu 
monetary systems, as the 48th part of a Rupee is just equal to the 
Faluce or piece of 20 Cash. They were struck for the Circars, a 
large district on the coast of the Bay of Bengal to the north of 
the Carnatic country, and thus in a measure connecting Madras with 
Bengal." 



83 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



1797 



1799? 



1799 ? 



1801 



1801 



1801 



A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 
(i). GILT PROOF. 



Same as No. 52. 



Same as No. 52 except 
date. 



MADRAS COPPER CASH. 

Date \rw. 



Bale-mark of the Company 
surrounded by a beaded 
circle. 



i, 11.] 



TELLICHERRY SILVER. 



T. 99, and Persian inscrip- 
tion, surrounded by a 
beaded circle. 



Persian inscription sur- 
rounded by a beaded 
circle. 

[Pi. ii, i.] 



[PI. ii,2.] 



MADRAS COPPER. 



Orb and cross inscribed ' C ' 



E. 



surrounded by a radiate 
border. 



Date #801 with wavy line 
above and below. 



[PI. i, 12.] 



[PI. i, 13.] 

MADRAS COPPER 2 DUBS. 



(" Christian year 
1801. Two falus of the 
Honorable Company ") 
surrounded by a serrated 
circle. 



1801 



1801 



y-jli 

(" Christian year 
1801. Falus of the Honor- 
able Company.") 



Inscription in Telugu 
" Two Dubs of the Com- 
pany : " 2 DUBS : sur- 
rounded by a serrated 
circle. 

LPl. ii, 3.] 



Inscription in Telugu 
" Half Dub of the Com- 
pany : " i DUB. 

[PI. ii, 4, 5.] 



84 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 








BOMBAY COFFEE DOUBLE PICE. 




65 


1802 


Bale-mark of the Company 
with date 1802 below, sur- 
rounded by a serrated 
circle. 


A balance with the word 
J>*c between the scales, 
surrounded by a serrated 
circle. 


66 


1803 


but date 18 03. 


> 








MADEAS COFFEE 1 CASH. 




67 


1803 


Bale-mark of the Company. 


Date 1803. 












[PI. ii, 6.] 


68 


1803 


M 















[PI. ii, 7.] 






MADEAS 1 CASH. 1 








(a). COPPER. 




69 


1803 


Lion 1, carrying a crown, 
with date 1803 below. 
Flain rim on face. 


u-V* ("Jw") 1 CASH. Plain 
rim on face. 










[PI. ii, 8.] 


70 


1803 


n 


n 








(8). SILVER PROOF. 




71 


1803 


n 


> 




72 


1803 





>> 




1 " These pieces occur as proofs in silver, bronzed, and gilt. 
They were made in England by Messrs. Boulton and Vatt, and it is 
said that No. 137 (= Nos. 69, 70) is the smallest coin ever struck in 
collar. " Atkins. 



85 



No. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



73 



1803 



74 



75 



1803 



1803 



76 



1803 



77 



1804 



78 



1804 



79 



1804 



A. COINS WITH DATE wmwrf, 

MADEAS COFFEE 10 CASH. 



The arms of the Company 

With EAST INDIA COM- 
PANY above, and date 
1803 below : serrated rim 
on face. 



\ u-)ii )O 

(" Ten Ms make two //#") 
x CASH : serrated rim on 
face. 

I PI. tt. 9.] 



MADEAS COFFEE 5 CASH. 



(" Five kds make one 
faliis ") v CASH : serrated 
rim on face. 

[PI. ii.'lO.] 



BOMBAY 20 CASH. 

GILT PROOF. 



but date 1804. 



A balance with the word 
J.xe between the scales, 
and date \fta beneath 
surrounded by a beaded 
circle. 



BOMBAY 10 CASH. 
(a). COPPER. 



[PI. li. 11. 



(i). GILT PROOF. 



86 



No. 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



80 



81 



82 



83 



84 



85 



86 



87 



88 



1804 



1804 



1804 



1805 



1805 



1805 



180* 



1807 



1807 



A. COINS WITH DATE continued, 
BOMBAY 5 CASH. 

(a). COPPER. 

The arms of the Company 1 A balance with the -word 



With EAST INDIA COM- 
PANY above, but date 1804. 



[PI. iii, 1.] 



between the scales, 
and date W^ beneath ; 
surrounded by a beaded 
circle. 



(i). GILT PROOF. 



SILVER, TELLICHEEEY. 



A balance with the letter 
T between the scales, 
and date 1805 below. 



Persian inscription. 



fPl. iii, 2.] 



[PI. iii, 3.] 



GOLD, TELLICHEEEY. 



T. 99, Persian inscription, 
and date 1 SOx : surround- 
ed by a beaded circle. 

[PI. iii, 4.] 



Persian inscription, sur- 
rounded by a beaded 
circle. 



MADEAS COPPEE. 



Bale-mark of the Company. 



Date 1807. 



[PL iii, 5.] 



87 



No. Date. 



89 



1807 



90 



1807 



91 



92 



1807 



1808 



93 



1808 



94 



95 



1808 



1808 



Obverse. 



Reverse . 



A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 
MADEAS COPPEE 3 DUBS. 



In centre within circle, 
inscription in Telugu 
" Three new duba and 
one little fanam." The 
same inscription in, Tamil 
round margin. 



\ 

("Christian year 1807. This 
coin, three falils of the 
Honorable Company, 

makes one little fanam.") 



[PI. iii, 7,1 



MADEAS COPPEE DUB. 



("Christian year 1807. Half 
faliis of the Honorable 
Company.") 



In centre within circle 
inscription in Telugu 
" Company's half dub." 
The same inscription in 
Tamil round margin. 

[Pi. xv, 4.] 



MADEAS COPPEE 20 CASH. 



The arms of the Company 

With EAST INDIA COM- 
PANY above, and date 
1808 below : serrated 
rim on face. 



(" Twenty kas make four 
fahls") xx CASH : serrat- 
ed rim on face. 



[PI. iii, 6.] 



MADEAS COPPEE 10 CASH. 



< JL* 



>w 



( ' ' Ten Jcas make two falus") 
x CASH : serrated rim on 
face. 



88 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 






BENGAL 1 PIE. 






COPPER PROOF. 


96 


1809 


The arms of the Company, 
with ONE PIE above, and 
date 1809 below: sur- 
rounded by a beaded 
circle. 


The value of the coin " One 
Pai Sikka " in Persian, 
Nagari, and Bengali : 
surrounded by a beaded 
circle. 








[PI. XV. 5.] 






BENGAL i PIE. 






COPPER PROOF. 


97 


1809 





,, but value of 
coin " Half Pai Sikka." 








[PI. xv, 6.] 






BOMBAY COPPEE PICE. 


98 


1809 


Bale-mark of the Company 
with date 1809 below. 


A balance with the word 
JAC between the scales. 


99 


1810 


but date 1810. 





100 


1813 


but date 1813. 


> 


101 


1815 


,, but date 1815. 


ii 


102 


1815 


> 


ii 






BOMBAY COPPEE 4 PICE. 


103 


1816 


but date 1816. 


A balance with the word 
JAC and numeral 4 
between the scales. 








[PI. iii, 8.J 






BOMBAY COPPEE DOUBLE PICE. 


104 


1816 





,, but no 
numeral. 






[PI. iii, 9.] 








BOMBAY COPPEE PICE. 


105 


1816 


ii 


ii 








[PI. iii, 10.] 



89 



No. Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



1819 



1820 



1821 



1821 



ISxx 



1825 



1825 



1825 



1825 



A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 
BOMBAY COPPER DOUBLE PICE. 



Bale-mark of the Company, 
but date 1819. 



A balance with the word 
-w but no numeral. 



BOMBAY COPPEE PICE. 

but date 1820. 



BOMBAY COPPEE PICE. 



Bale-mark of the Company. 



A balance with inscription 



in Nagari ^WT (" Paisd ") 
between the scales, and 
date otreo below. 

[PI. xv, 7.] 



BOMBAY COPPEE PICE. 



date 18 xx. 



and traces of 



A balance with inscription 



in Nagari 3{Vf f%f ( < ' Half 
Paisd ") between the 
scales, and date ocran 
'below. 



[PI. iv, 1.] 



BOMBAY COPPEE PICE. 



Bale-mark of the Company, 
date illegible. 



Bale-mark of the Company 
with date 1825 below. 



A balance with the word 
J^^ between the scales. 

[PI. iv, 4.] 



[PI. iv, 2.] 



BOMBAY COPPEE J- PICE. 



BOMBAY COPPEE i PICE. 



[PI. iv, 3.] 



90 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. He verse. 






A. COINS WITH DATE-w//w/. 






BENGAL COPPEE 4 PAL 


115 


1825 


The arms of the Company 
and date 1825 : serrated 


Inscription 4 ^5^1 l ^^ 
\rv- ^ within a wreath : 






riiu on face. 


serrated rim on face. 








[PI. iv, 6.] 






BENGAL COPPEE 2 PAL 


116 
117 


1825 
1825 


" 


,, but inscription 2 

[PI. iv, 6.] 






BENGAL COPPEE 1 PAL 


118 


1825 


M 


hut inscription 1 


119 


1825 


n 


[PI. iv, 7.1 
>> 






BOMBAY COPPEE i ANNA. 


120 


1833 


The arms of the Company 
and date 1833 : plain rim 
on face. 


A balance with the word 
J^s between the scales, 

QUARTER ANNA above, 

and date \vfi below : 








plain rim on face. 

[PI. iv, 8.] 


121 


1833 












BOMBAY COPPEE 1 PIE. 


122 


1833 


The arms of the Company 
and date 1833 : plain rim 
on face. 


A balance with the word 
J^c between the scales, 
PIE above, and date W* 
below : plain rim on 
face. 








[PI. iv, 9.-J 


123 


1833 












BOMBAY COPPEE \ ANNA. 


124 


1834 


The arms of the Company 

with EAST INDIA COMPANY 

above, and date 1834 
below : plain rim on face. 


A balance with the word 
J.AC between the scales, 
HALF ANNA above, and 
date ^f^ below : plain 
rim on face. 








[PI. iv, 10.] 


1 " Four par, year 1240." 
2 "Two pat, year 1240." 
3 " One paf, year 1240." 



91 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 






GOLD. 






DOUBLE MOHUR. 


125 


1835 


Bust of the King r: WILLIAM 


Lion and Palm Tree : EAST 






iv KING above, and date 


INDIA COMPANY above, 






1835 below: dotted rim 


TWO MOHURS (^j^ )^ l 






on face. 


below : dotted rim on 








face. 






(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 






[PI. v, 1.] 






SINGLE MOHUE. 


126 


1835 


" 


,, but ONE MOHUR sl* 








[PI. v, 2.] 






SILVER. 






1 EUPEE. 


127 


1835 


Bust of the King r : WILLIAM 


Inscription ONE RUPEK ud* 






iv KING : dotted rim on 


"**:)? within a wreath EAST 






face. 


INDIA COMPANY 1835, 








around : dotted rim on 








face. 






(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 








[PI. v, 3.J 


128 


1835 


1 









* RUPEE. 


129 


1835 


n 


,, but inscription within 








the wreath HALF RUPEE 






(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 








[PI. v, 4.] 


130 


1835 












1 " Two ashrafi." " One ashrafi." 
3 " One rupee." 4 " Eight annas." 



92 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 






SILVER continued. 






i EUPEE. 


131 


1835 


Bust of the King r : WILLIAM 


Dotted rim on face, but in- 






iv KING : dotted rim on 


scription within the wreath 






face. 


J RUPEE ^jW>- l 






(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 








[PI. v, 5.] 


132 


1835 












COPPER. 






1 ANNA. 


133 


1835 


The arms of the Company 
and date 1835 : plain rim 


Inscription ^J\* )<* 2 HALF 
ANNA within a wreath : 






on face. 


EAST INDIA COMPANY 








around : plain rim on 








face. 








[PI. v, 6.] 


134 


1835 












i ANNA. 


135 


1835 




,, but inscription within 








the wreath ^^j ^ 3 ONE 








QUARTER ANNA. 








[PI. v, 7.] 


136 


1835 


n 


> 






TV ANNA. 


137 


1835 




,, but inscription within 








the wreath -fa ANNA e-i> 








[PI. /, 8.] 


138 


1835 


" 


^ 






1 " Four annas." 2 " Two pat." 
3 " One pat." 4 " One-third pai." 



93 



Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



139 



1840 



140 



141 



1840 



1840 



142 



143 



1840 



1840 



144 



1840 



145 



1841 



A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 

SILVER continued. 

1 EUPEE. 



3ust of the Queen 1 : VICTORIA 
QUEEN : serrated rim on 
face. 



Inscription ONE RUPEE ^ 
*>,)) within a wreath: EAST 

INDIA COMPANY 1840 

around : serrated rim on 
face. 



(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 



4- EUPEE. 



, , but inscription within 
the wreath HALF RUPEE 



(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 



EUPEE. 



,, but inscription within 
the wreath | RUPEE ^ ;V^ 



(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 



GOLD. 
SINGLE MOHUE. 



Bust of Queen Victoria 1 : 
VICTORIA QUEEN : serrated 
rim on face. 



Lion and Palm Tree : EAST 
INDIA COMPANY above, 

ONE MOHUR ^j]*"\ *^i 

below : serrated rim on 
face. 



94 



No. 


Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






A. COINS WITH DATE continued. 






(SILVER continued. 






2 ANNAS. 


146 


1841 


Bust of Queen Victoria 1 : 
VICTORIA QUEEN : serrated 
rim on face. 


Serrated rim on face, but 
inscription within the 
wreath TWO ANNAS ^ yj l 








and date 1841. 






(No MILLING.) 


147 


1841 





,, 








[PI. v, 9.] 






COPPER. 






1 CENT. 


148 


1845 


Bust of the Queen 1 : and 
inscription VICTORIA QUEEN : 
plain rim on face. 


Inscription ONE CENT within 
a wreath : EAST INDIA 
COMPANY, 1845, around: 
serrated rim on face. 


149 


1845 












i CENT. 


150 


1845 


11 


,, but inscription 
within the wreath HALF 








CENT. 


151 


1845 





M 






i CENT. 


152 


1845 





,, but inscription 
within the wreath 








QUARTER CENT. 






SILVER. 






1 RUPEE. 


153 


1849 


Bust of the Queen 1 : 
VICTORIA QUEEN : serrated 
rim on face. 


Inscription ONE RUPEE 
,* ^ d> within a wreath : 

EAST INDIA COMPANY, 

1849, around : serrated 








rim on face. 


1 " Two annas." 



95 



No. Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 



154 



155 



156 



158 



159 



1849 



1849 



1849 



1853 



1853 



1853 



A. COINS WITH DA.TE- continued. 



RUPEE. 



Bust of the Queen 1 : 
VICTORIA QUEEN : serra- 
ted rim on face. 



Serrated rim on face, but 
inscription within the 
wreath HALF RUPEE 



(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 
i KUPEE. 



,, but inscription 

within the wreath 
RUPEE 



(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 
2 ANNAS. 



, , but inscription 
within the wreath TWO 

AHNA8. 



(No MILLING.) 
COPPER. 



ANNA. 



The arms of the Company 
and date 1853 : serrated 
rim on face. 



Inscription <^/\> iX> ONE 
QUARTER ANNA within a 
wreath : EAST INDIA COM- 
PANY around : serrated 
rim on face. 



PICE. 



rim on face. 



but plain 



but inscription 

-J- PICE within the wreath 
and plain rim on face. 



9G 



No. 



Mint : Date. 



Murshidabad 



1.1 



1.2 



Murshidabad 
Iff 



Murshidabdd 



Murshidabad 



Murshidabad 



Murshidabad 
19. 



Obverse. 



Rfi verse. 



B. COINS STEUCK IN THE NAME OF 
NATIVE PRINCES. 



MUESHIDABAD. 
GOLD MOHUR. 

(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



(" Defender of the Mu- 
hamuiadan faith, Re- 
flection of Divine Ex- 
cellence, the Emperor 
Shah A lam has struck 
this coin to be current 
throughout the seven 
climes. 1202 ") 

(Prinsep.) 



("Struck at Murshida- 
bad in the 19th year of 
his fortunate reign.") 



[PI. vi, i.] 



GOLD MOHUR. 
(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 

I 

GOLD ONE-QUARTER MOHUR. 

(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 

\^ .JU. OV>\ Aii 



(" 1204 Coin of the Em- \ (" Struck at Murshida- 
peror Shah Alam.") bad in the 19th "year.") 



[PL vi. 2. 



RUPEE. 

(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



("Defender of the Mu- 
hammadan faith, Re- 
flection of Divine Ex- 
cellence, the Emperor 
Shah Alam has struck 
this coin to be current 
throughout the seven 
dimes.") 






^\t\ Ail 



l^r* --JvO 



("Struck at Murshida- 
bad in the 1 9th year of 
his fortunate reign.") 



97 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Murshidabad 
Sun 19. 



Murshidabad 
Sun 19. 



Murshidabad 
Sun 19. 



Murshidabad 

irr 



Murshidabad 
Sun 19. 



Murshidabdd 
Sun 19. 



B. COINS STRUCK IN THE NAME OF 
NATIVE PEINCES continued. 

EUPEE continued. 
(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 



Same legend as 4 : dotted 
rim on the face. 



Same legend : but plain 
rim on face. 



Same legend as 4 : dotted 
rim on the face. 

[PI. vi, 3.] 

Same legend : but plain 
rim on face. 



HALF EUPEE. 

(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 

Same legend : but ser- Same legend : but ser- 
rated rim on face. rated rim on face. 

[PI. vi, 4.] 

QUAETEE EUPEE. 

(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 



X. \rf 



(" 1204. Coin of the Empe- 
ror Shah Alam:") ser- 
rated rim on face. 



(" Struck at Murshidabad 
in the 19th year:") 



serrated rim on face. 

[PI. vi, 5.] 

EUPEE. 

(WITHOUT MILLING.) 



(" Defender of the Mu- 
hammadan faith, Ee- 
flection of Divine Ex- 
cellence, the Emperor 
Shah Alam has struck 
this coin to be current 
throughout the seven 
climes.") 

Same legend as 9 : ser- 
rated rim on the face. 



("Struck at Murshidabdd 
in the 19th year of hia 
fortunate reign.") 



[Pi. vi, ej 

Same legend as 9: ser- 
rated rim on the face. 



N 



98 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






B. COINS STRUCK IN THE NAME OP 






NATIVE PmNCES continued. 






HALF EUPEE, 






(WITHOUT MILLING.) 


11 


Murshidabad 


Same as 9. 


Same as 9. 




Sun 19. 




[PI. vi, 7.] 






QUAETEE EUPEE. 






(WITHOUT MILLING.) 


12 


Murshiddbad 

vrr 


U.vAj 5lfi ili. X- W'P 


\^ ^U* jl?^ J&.M W_J vC- 






(" 1204. Coin of the Em- 
peror Shah Alam.") 


(" Struck at Murshidabad 
in the 19th year.") 






[PI. vi, 8.] 






FAEUKHABAD. 






EUPEE. 1 






(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 


13 


Farukhdbad 


4\ J-ii 4jU Ju^. <. ^.U 


y-^. f ^ ^\ C/ ^J* 




Sun 45. 


iVAfl )^*^ V^ -i^^ *i 3l ^JXm.< 

6l4.jlj ^5 IE 


y-^U ^^. 






(" Defender of the Mu- 
hammadan faith, Ee- 
flection of Divine Ex- 
cellence, the Emperor 
Shah Alain has struck 


(" Struck at Farukhabad 
in the 45th year of his 
prosperous reign.") 






this coin to be current 








throughout the seven 
climes.") 


[PI. vii, 1.] 






EUPEE. 






(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 


14 


Farukhabad 


,, 







Sun 45. 




[PI. vii, 2.] 


15 


Farukhdbdd 





,, 




Sun 45. 






1 45th sun Lucknow rupee of Reg. XLV, 1803. 



99 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Farukhabad 
Sun 45. 



Farukhabad 
Sun 45. 



Farukhdbad 
Sun 45. 



Farukhabad 
Sun 45. 



Farukhabad 
WT 



Farukhabad 



Benares 



B. COINS STRUCK IN THE NAME OP 
NATIVE PRINCES-confamcrf. 

EUPEE continued, 
(WITHOUT MILLING.) 



Same legend as 13 : 
plain rim on face. 



Same legend as 13 : 
plain rim on face. 

[PL vii, 3.] 



HALF EUPEE. 

(WITHOUT MILLING.) 



[PI. vii, 4.1 



[PI. vii, 5.] 



QUAETER EUPEE. 

(WITHOUT MILLING.) 



Vc cu, x. \rp 

( 1204. Coin of, the Em- 
peror Shah Alain : ") 
plain rim on face. 



(" Struck at Farukhabad 
in the 45th year : ") 
plain rim on face. 

[PI. vii, 6.] 



BENAEES. 

EUPEE. 
(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



_. 



("Defender of the Mu- 
hammadan faith, Ee- 
flection of Divine Ex- 
cellence, the Emperor 
Shah Alam has struck 
this coin to be current 
throughout the seven 
climes. 1229.") 



(''Struck at Muhamma- 
ddbdd, Benares, in the 

year of his fortu- 
nate reign.") 

TPl. vii, 7.] 



100 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Eeverse. 






B. COINS STRUCK IN THE NAME OF 






NATIVE PEINCES continued. 






HALF EUPEE. 






(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 


23 


Benares 














[PI. vii, 1.] 






QUAETEE EUPEE. 






(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 


24 


Benares 


aUoU ^ eU X- \vw 


\^ ^U y-jU v^ 




\rtt 


(" 1229. Coin of the Em- 
peror Shah Alain.") 


(" Struck at Benares iu 
the year 1749.") 








[PI. vii, 8.] 






TEISOOLEE PICE. 


25 


Benares 


Value of the coin " One 


^ y-^. 8U^ JU 6U 




Sun TV 


pai " in Persian and 
Bengali : Mint mark 
a trimla. 


Mint mark a trisula. 








[PI. Xvi 1.] 


-26 


Benares 


H 


>i 




Sun TV 






27 


Benares 
Sun TV 


H 


- 


28 


Benares 

SM r* 


II 


ii 


29 


Benares 




^ . 6UjU , lc fiU 




F* 




f 








Mint mark a trimla. 








[PI. ivi. 2.] 



101 



Mint : Date. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



Surat 



Surat 



Surat 



Surat 



Surat 



Surat 



Surat 



Surat 



B. COINS STEUCK IN THE NAME OP 
NATIVE PKINCES continued. 

8UEAT. 

EUPEE. 

(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 



[" The auspicious coin of 
tlie great Emperor Shah 
Alain, 1215 : ") sur- 
rounded by lined circle. 



' Struck at Surat in the 
46th year of his pro- 
pitious reign : ") sur- 
rounded by lined circle. 

[PI. viii, 2.] 



EUPEE. 

(WITHOUT MILLING.) 



Same legend as 25 : but 
serrated rim on face. 



Same legend as 25 : but 
serrated rim on face. 

[PI. viii, 3.] 



HALF RUPEE. 

(WITHOUT MILLING.) 



[PI. viii, 4. 



QUARTER RUPEE. 

(WITHOUT MILLING.) 
Same legend as 27 : but Same legend as 27 : but 



plain rim on face. 



plain rim on face. 

[PI. viii, 5.] 



102 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






B. COINS STETJCK IN THE NAME OF 






NATIVE PRINCES continued. 


38 


Surat 


THICK GOLD MOHUR. 


A small crown. 










[PI. xvi, 3.] 






THIN RUPEE. 1 


39 


Snrat 


li 8\AoU 


i 




[PI. xvi, 4.] 


40 


Surat, 
1825 


THICK RUPEE. 


A small crown. 


Date 1825 incuse. 


41 


,, 


,, 


[PI. xvi, 5.] 






THICK HALF RUPEE. 


42 

















[PI. xvi, 6.] 






ARGOT. 2 






DOUBLE RUPEE. 






(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 


43 


Arcot 


tit**, ^W. X. W 


y,y n^u *x$ ^^ 






A^35-^ (,y}i Jk5\oyc ^ jve 
**.+&. 

(" The auspicious coin of 
the noble Monarch 
Aziz-ud-din Muham- 
mad Alamgir, 1172: ") 
serrated rim on face. 


(" Struck at Arkat in the 
6th year of his propi- 
tious reign :") serrated 
rim on face. 








[PI. ix, 1.] 


44 


Arcot 





' 


1 " The improved ' Surat ' Rupee, showing more of legend 
and better struck, coined both at Calcutta and Bombay, 1800 
to 1818. Those struck at Bombay bear as mint mark a small 
crown." Atkins. 
2 Arcot rupees and their divisions were struck not only at 
the Madras Mint, but also at the Calcutta Mint, the latter 
being known as Calcutta-Arcot rupees, and distinguished 
from the former by bearing a rose as a mint mark instead of 
a lotus flower. Both types are represented in the following 
series. (Vide pi. ix, x.) 



103 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






B. COINS STEUCK IN THE NAME 


OF 






NATIVE PRINCES continued. 








EUPEE. 








(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 




45 


Arcot 


Same legend as 33 : sur- 
rounded by a lined 
circle. 


Same legend as 33 : 
rounded by a 
circle. 


sur- 
lined 








[PI. ix, 


2.] 


46 


Arcot 














DOUBLE ANNA. 








(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 




47 


Arcot 


sUjVj ^Vc X. Uvv 


n ^ ^^ ^ , 








("1172. Coin of the Em- 
peror Alamgir:") sur- 
rounded by a lined 
circle. 


('' Struck at ArJcdt in the 
6th year :") surrounded 
by a lined circle. 








[PI. ix, 


3.J 


48 


Arcot. 





M 








SINGLE ANNA. 








(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 




49 


Arcot 


M 


II 








- 


[PI. ix, 


4.3 


50 


Arcot 


" 


' 





104 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






B. COINS STRUCK IN THE NAME OF 






NATIVE "PRINCES continued. 






KUPEE. 






(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 


51 


Arcot 


(" The auspicious coin of 
the noble Monarch, 
Aziz-ud-din Muham- 
mad Alamgir 1172 :") 
dotted rini on face. 


("Struck at Arkotinthe 
6th year of his propi- 
tious reign :") dotted 
rim on face. 

[PI. is, 5.] 


52 


Arcot 












HALF EUPEE. 






(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 


53 


Arcot 


|f 






\\vr 




[PI. is, 8.] 


54 


Arcot 





M 






QUAETEE EUPEE. 






(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 


55 


Arcot 














[PI. ix, 7.] 


56 


Arcot 





" 






GOLD MOHUE. 






(INDENTED CORD MILLING.) 


57 


Arcot 


^U U.>\, -J ; W- X- \\w 


y-^ t ^U VE,^ ^^ 






(" The auspicious coin of 
the noble Monarch 
Aziz-ud-din Muham- 
mad Alamgir, 1172 :") 
dotted rini on face. 


( ' ' Struck at Arkat in the 
6th year of his pro- 
pitious reign:") dotted 
rim on face. 








[Pi. i, i.] 



105 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Reverse. 






B. COINS STRUCK IN THE NAME 


OP 






NATIVE PRINCES continued. 








GOLD MOHUR continued. 








(INDENTED COED MILLING.) 




58 


Arcot 


it 


11 








HALF MOHUR. 








(INDENTED COED MILLING.) 




59 


Arcot 


" 













[PI. i, 2.3 






RUPEE. 








(INDENTED COED MILLING.) 




60 


Arcot 


11 


11 

[Pi. 


X.S.] 


61 


Arcot 


" 


11 








HALF RUPEE. 








(INDENTED COED MILLING.) 




62 


Arcot 


11 


11 
[Pi. 


1,4], 






QUARTER RUPEE. 








(INDENTED COED MILLING.) 




63 


Arcot 


("1172. Coin of the Em- 
peror Alamgir :") dot- 
ted rim on face. 


(" Struck at Arkat in the 
6th year :") dotted rim 
on face. 

[PI. X, 5.] 



106 



No. 


Mint : Date. 


Obverse. 


Eeverse. 






B. COINS STEUCK IN THE NAME OF 






NATIVE FRINGES continued. 






GOLD MOHUE. 






(No MILLING.) 


64 


Arcot 


v. ^--y >;/- 


^ ' ^J^ju^jL^ 






(" Defender of the 
Muhammadan faith, 
Eeflection of Divine 
Excellence, the Em- 
peror Shah Alam 
struck this coin to be 
current throughout the 
seven climates. 1 1214.") 


(" Struck at Arkat in 
the 59th (?) year of 
the auspicious reign.") 

[PI. x, 6.J 






THICK EUPEE. 






(WITHOUT MILLING.) 


65 


Arcot 


if 


,, but year 44. 








[Pl.x, 7.3 






THICK EUPEE. 






(WITHOUT MILLING.) 


66 


Arcot 


Traces of .... 


Lotus, and traces of 








[PI. x, 8.3 


67 


Arcot 








1 " When Timnr, establishing his throne in India, overcame 
the Kings of Cashmeer, Bengal, Decan, Gudjraat, Lahore, 
Poorub, and Paishoor, he united the kingdoms, and called 
himself conqueror and sovereign of the seven climates or 
countries." Moor, Narrative of Little's Detachment, App. 
p. 472. 



107 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



C. COINS WITHOUT DATE. 

GOLD. 
MADEAS THKEE-SWAHI PAGODA. 1 



Standing figures of Venkatesvara 
and his two wives. 



Granulated surface. 



[PI. xi, 1.] 



MADRAS POETO NOVO OE SCOTT PAGODA. 



Figure of Vishnu. 



Granulated surface. 

[PI. xi,2.] 



COPPER. 2 



GOLD. 
MADEAS OLD STAR PAGODA. 



Figure of Vishnu with a star 
above the head. 



Granulated surface with a 5- 



rayed star. 



[Pl.ii.S.] 



BEASS. 



1 Pagoda = 3| rupees ; 1 rupee = 12 Fanams ; 14 paisa = 76 cash. 

2 This is the only copper coin of this type which I have ever seen or heard of, 
and was obtained from Mr. Desika Chari. Auct. 



108 



No. 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



Obverse. Reverse. 

C. COINS WITHOUT DATE continued. 
MADEAS NEW DOUBLE STAE PAGODA. 



'he gopuram of a temple sur- 
rounded by stars in centre : 
inscription round margin TWO 

PAGODAS, jfc <* l 



Figure of Vishnu surrounded with 
dots in centre : inscription 
round margin " Two Pagodas " 
in Tamil and Telugu. 



(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



MADEAS NEW SINGLE STAE PAGODA. 



[PI. xi, 4.] 



" but inscription PAGODA 



" but inscription " Pagoda" in 

Tamil and Telugu. 

[PI. xi, 5.] 



(OBLIQUE MILLING). 
MADEAS SINGLE MOHUE. 



Arms of the Company and inscrip- 
tion ENGLISH EAST INDIA 

COMPANY : dotted rim on face. 



("Ashrafi 
of the Honorable English Com- 
pany :") dotted rim on face. 



(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 



MADEAS i MOHUE. 



[PI. xi, 6.] 



Lion 1. holding crown, and in- 
scription ENGLISH EAST INDIA 
COMPANY : dotted rim on face. 



rim on face. 
(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 
MADEAS i MOHUE. 



^ " (Half 
ashrafi of the Honorable 
English Company :") dotted 



[PI. xi, 7.3 



("Quarter ashrafi of the Hono- 
rable English Company :") 
dotted rim on face. 



i < Two htm." 



109 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



C. COINS WITHOUT I) A.TR continued. 
(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 

MADEAS 5 EUPEES. 



Shield with lion 1 holding crown, 
and inscription ENGLISH EAST 
INDIA COMPANY : dotted rim on 
face. 



[PI. xi. 8.] 



(" 

Eupees of the Honorable 
English Company:") dotted 
rim on face. 



(STRAIGHT MILLING.) 



[Pi. , e.] 



BOMBAY GOLD EUPEE. 



[PI. Jti, 10.] 



SILVEE. 

MADRAS ? CHARLES n. 



Figure of Vishnu. 



but 



surrounded by beaded circle. 



Two linked C's. 



[PI. ii, 18.] 



[PI. ii, II.] 



but 



surrounded by beaded circle. 

[PI. XV, 8.] 



110 



No. 



28 
29 

30 

31 

32 



33 



34 



35 



36 
37 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



C. COINS WITHOUT VA.TE continued. 

COPPER. 
BOMBAY DOUBLE PICE. 



A crown. 



Motto [AU] SPICIO [REG] is ET 
[SENATUS] AJS*Q [LIAE. 

[PI. xv, 9.] 



BOMBAY PICE. 



[PI. XT, 10.] 



BOMBAY ? 

A crown with wreath below. Undecipherable Persian inscrip- 

tion. 

[PI. ivi, 7.] 

LEAD. 
BOMBAY DOUBLE PICE. 



A crown with G.. above, BOMB 
below. 



Motto ATTSPICIO REGIS ET 8ENATT78 



ANGLLffi. 



[PI. XVi, 80 



COPPER. 
MADRAS. 



Orb and cross inscribed c ^ c 
within a beaded circle. 



Undecipherable inscription 

within a beaded circle. 



f PI. TV. 11.1 



BOMBAY PICE. 



Bale-mark of the Company. 



1 PICE BOMB. 



[PI. ri, 18.] 



MADRAS. 



Sri." (Tamil). 



"Kumpani " (Tamil). 

[PI. xii, l.j 



Ill 



No. 



39 
40 
41 
42 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



C. COINS WITHOUT DATE continued. 
COPPEE continued. 



Bale-mark of the Company : 
surrounded by a beaded circle. 



43 Bale-mark of the Company. 



Crossed lines and symbols. 



[PI. xii, . 3 



Persian inscription. 

[PI. xii, 3.] 

Bale-mark of the Company. 



44 



45 



46 



47 



Forty Cash") XL CASH : serrated 
rim on face. 



MADEAS 40 CASH. 



is is Inscription in Tamil and Telugu, 



" This is Forty Cash :" serrated 



rim on face. 



[PI. xii, 4.1 



MADEAS 20 CASH. 



(" This is 



Twenty Cash") xx CASH. 



Inscription in Tamil and Telugu, 
" This is Twenty Cash." 



[PI. xii, 8.] 



MADEAS 10 CASH. 

oriptioi 

This is Ten Cash.' 



^ ,,* BO ^ (" This is Ten j Inscription in Tamil and Telugu, 
Cash.") x CASH. " T>I;O - T ^ r! R}l -' > 



[Pi. xii, 6.] 



112 



No. 



48 
49 

50 
51 

52 

53 
54 

55 

66 

57 
58 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



C. COINS WITHOUT DATE continued. 

COPP1SR continued. 
MADEAS 10 CASH continued. 



Cash ") x CASH. 



yd ( This is Ten 



Inscription in Tamil and Telugu 
Tin' a io Ton n Qc v, " 



This is Ten 



MADEAS 5 CASH. 



Cash ") v CASH. 



("This is Five 



Inscription in Tamil and Telugu 



" This is Five Cash." 



[PI. xii, 7.1 



MADEAS 2 CASH. 

("This is | Inscription in Tamil and Telugu 
Two-and-a-half 'Cash ") 2 I " This is Two-and-a-half 



CASH : surrounded by a circle 
of dots. 



Cash: " surrounded by a circle 



of dots. 



[PI. xii, 8.] 



MADEAS i DUB. 



Inscription in Tamil " Quarter 
Dub of the Company." 



Inscription in Telugu " Quarter 
Dub of the Company." 



[PI. xiii, 6.1 



BENGAL TWO PA'I SIKKA. 



,3Vc slib TV (%la. ^~4 (" In 
the 37th year of the reign of 



the Emperor Shah alam.") 

BENGAL ONE PA'l SIKKA. 



Inscription in Bengali, Persian, 
and Nagarf " Two Pa'i Sikka." 



[PI. xii, 10.] 



,, but plain rim on face. 



Inscription in Bengali, Persian, 
and Nagari " One Pa'i Sikka." 

[PI. xiii, 1.] 

M 

,, but plain rim on face. 

[PI. liii, 2.] 



113 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



C. COINS WITHOUT DATE continued. 
COPPER continued. 



sift, oU 



si*, 



(" In 



the 37th year of the reign of 
the Emperor Shah Alam :") but 
plain rim on face. 

but lined circle on face. 



Inscription in Bengali, Persian, 
and Nagari "One Pa'i Sikka :" 
but plain rim on face. 



Inscription in Persian and 
Nagari' " One Pa'i Sikka :" 
lined circle on face. 

[PI. riii. 3.3 

BENGAL A PA'I SIKKA. 

Inscription in Persian and 
Nagari "Half Pa'f Sikka:" 
lined circle on face. 



[PI. xiii, 4.] 



BENGAL ANNA. 



Inscription in Etipl : sh and 



Bengali "Half Anna:" serrated 
rim on face. 



Inscription in Persian and Na'garl 



"Half Anna :" serrated rim on 

face. 

[PL xiii, 6.3 

BENGAL 1 PIE. 1 



Inscription in English and 
Bengali, " One Pie : " serrated 
rim on face. 



Inscription in Persian and Na- 
gari " One Pie:" serrated ri ox 
on face. 



[PI. xii, 8.] 



SILVEE. 
MADEAS 4 ANNAS. 



Centre, **jy 

FOUK ANNAS. 



around, 



Centre, " Four Annas " (Telugu) : 
around, " Four Annas " (Tamil) 
and a star. 



(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



[Pi. ii, 7.3 



1 " The pa'i or third of a paisa has merely the name " one pa'i, which 

makes it liable to be confounded with the " one pa'i sikka, " and on this account, 
perhaps, it has not found ready currency. The natives reckon only sixty- 
four paisa to the rupee, while the English accounts divide the and into twelve 
pa'i ; to distinguish them, this latter (hitherto an imaginary coin) was called the 
pa'i of account." Prinsep. 
2 " Four annas rupia." 



114 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



67 



68 



69 



70 



71 



72 



73 



C. COINS WITHOUT DATE continued. 

SILVER continued. 
MADRAS 2 ANNAS. 



Centre, ^ 

ANNAS. 



around, TWO 



Centre, " Two Annas " (Telugu) 
around, " Two Annas " (Tamil) 
and a star. 



(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



[PI. xiii, 8.] 



MADRAS | PAGODA. 



The gopuram of a temple sur- 
rounded by stars in centre : 
inscription round margin HALF 



PAGODA 



Figure of Vishnu surrounded by 
dots in centre : inscription 
round margin " Half Star 
Pagoda " in Tamil and Telugu. 



(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



[PI. xiv, 1.] 



MADRAS i PAGODA. 

,, but inscription QUARTER ,, but inscription " Quarter Star 

Pagoda " in Tamil and Telugu. 



PAGODA 



(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



[PI. xiv,12.] 



MADRAS 5 FANAMS. 



Centre, ^4- 
FANAMS. 



g^; 4 ; around, FIVE 



Centre, "Five Rukalu " (Telugu); 
around, " Five Panams " 
(Tamil) and a star. 



(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



[PI. xiv, 3.] 



1 " Two annas rupia. " 
3 " Quarter puli hun." 



2 " Half puli hun. 
4 " Five falams." 



116 



No. 



Obverse. 



Reverse. 



74 

75 
76 



77 



C. COINS WITHOUT DATE continued. 
SILVER co n tin ued. 



Centre, ^ g-i> ; around, FIVE 



FANAMS. 



Centre, " FiveRukalu" (Telugu) ; 
around, " Five Panama " 
(Tamil) and a star. 



(THICK COIN.) 



,, but no star. 

[PI. xvi, 9.] 



MADRAS DOUBLE FANAM. 



Centre, ^JLi jj ' ; around, DOUBLE 



FANAM. 



Centre, " TwoRukalu" (Telugu) ; 
around, " Two Panama " 
(Tamil) and a star. 



(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



78 



79 



80 



81 
82 

83 



[PI. xiv, 4.J 



MADRAS FANAM. 



Centre, ,Ji 2 ; around, FANAM. 



Centre, " Ruka " (Telugu) ; 
around, " Panam "(Tamil) and 
a star. 



(OBLIQUE MILLING.) 



[PI. riv, 5.] 



A star in centre : surrounded by 
the word FANAM and a wreath. 



A star in centre : surrounded by 
the words "Ruka" (Telugu) 
and " Panam " (Tamil). 



[PI. riv, 6. J 



1 " Two falams." 



" One falam.' 



116 



ADDENDA. 

During the revision of the later proof sheets, I had the opportunity 
of examining a large number of coins from the Gran jam district, out of 
which the following coins of the Company have been added : 

P. 93. Nos. 145-1 and 145'2. Grold Mohur. (Lion and Palm 

Tree). 1841. 

P. 96. No. 4*1. Murshidabad rupee, oblique milling. 
Nos. 4*3 and 4'2. Murshidabad | rupee, oblique milling. 
Nos. 4 4 and 4-5' Murshidabad rupee, oblique milling. 
P. 97. No. 7*1. Murshidabdd \ rupee, straight milling. 
No. 8*1. Murshidabad rupee, straight milling. 
P. 98. No 12' 1. Murshidabad rupee, without milling. 
., No. 13*1. Farukhabad rupee, oblique milling. 
P. 102. Nos. 41-1 and 41'2. Thick Surat rupee, without date 

incuse, 

Nos. 42'1 42 7. Old sun 19 sikka rupees, and rupees. 
P. 106. Nos. 65-1 65'31. Arcot rupees of the same type as 

No. 65, with various dates. 

Nos. 67-1 67'3. Arcot | and ^ rupees of the same type 
as No. 67. 



( H7 ) 
INDEX TO PLATES. 



PLATE I. 



Fig. 

1 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ae. 


1722 


Madras. 


79 


2 




1733 




28, 79 


3 


1) 







79 


4 


j y 


1736 




28, 79 


5 




1737 




79 


6 


j ) 


1755 




28, 79 


7 


}) 


1756 




28, 79 


8 


) ) 


1786 




28, 80 


9 


J 


1791 


Bombay. 10 Cash. 


80 


10 




1794 


20 


81 


11 





wt 


Madras. Cash. 


83 


12 


I 


1801 


Madras. 


83 


13 


> 


180x 


ii 


83 



PLATE II. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ar. 


1799? 


Tellicherry. 


21, 83 


2 


tt 


, , 




21, 83 


3 


Ae. 


1801 


Madras. 2 Dubs. 


83 


4 






JDub. 


83 


5 








83 


6 


( 


1803 


^ 'l Cash. 


84 


7 


( 







84 


8 






M 


84 


9 


i 




10 


85 


10 


( 




5 


85 


11 


" 


1804 


Bombay. 10 


85 



PLATE III. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 
2 


Ae. 
Ar. 


1804 
1805 


Bombay. 5 Cash. 
Tellicherry. 


89 
21, 86 


3 


i) 


,, 


,, 


21, 86 


4 


Au. 


180* 


7 , 


22, 86 


5 


Ae. 


1807 


Madras. 


86 


6 


> 


1808 


Madras. 20 Cash. 


87 


7 


>> 


1807 


3 Dubs. 


87 


8 


n 


1816 


Bombay. 4 Pice. 


88 


9 


,, 


)> 


i, 2 


88 


10 


)> 


" 


,, Single. 


8S 



118 



INDEX TO PLATES. 



PLATE IV. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ae. 


1821 


Bombay. ^ Pice. 


89 


2 




1825 


,, Single Pice. 


89 


3 




1825 


M i 


89 


4 




18-r.z; 


,, Single ,, 


89 


5 




1825 


4 Pai. 


90 


6 







2 


90 


7 




,, 


1 M 


90 


8 




1833 


,, J Anna. 


90 


9 







1 Pie. 


90 


10 




1834 


,, 3 Anna. 


90 



PLATE V. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Au. 


1836 


Double Mohur. 


91 


2 







Single ,, 


91 


3 


Ar. 




1 Rupee. 


91 


4 







i 


91 


5 


> 




f " 


92 


6 


Ae. 




1 Anna. 


92 


7 


j> 




T " 


92 


8 







A 


92 


9 


Ar. 


1841 


2 Annas. 


94 



PLATE VI. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Au. 


Wt 


Murshidabad. Mohur. 


96 


2 


11 


\vr 


>> ? 


96 


3 


Ar. 


*S. 19 


,, Rupee. 


97 


4 


> 




2 > 


97 


5 


i 


\vr 


i r, 


97 


6 


> 


MM. 19 


Rupee. 


97 


7 




,, 


2 


98 


8 


> 


\rr 


II 4 >' 


98 



INDEX TO PLATES. 



119 



PLATE VII. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ar. 


Sun. 45 


Farukhabad Rupee. 


98 


2 









98 


3 









99 


4 






ft 


99 


5 







> 


99 


6 




\rr 


i 


99 


7 


> 


\m 


,, Rupee. 


99 


3 


n 


)> 


Benares. ,, 


100 



PLATE VIII. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ar. 


\rvi 


Benares. \ Rupee. 


100 


2 





\v\ a 


Surat. Rupee. 


101 


3 





j> 


> 


101 


4 








)> 2 )) 


101 


5 


u 


it 


i 


101 



PLATE IX. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ar. 


ttvf 


Arcot. Double Rupee. 


102 


2 






Single 


103 


3 






2 Annas. 


103 


4 






1 Anna 


103 


5 






Rupee. 


104 


6 






? " 


104 


7 






* " 


104 



120 



INDEX TO PLATES. 
PLATE X. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


J ' -. ription of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Au. 


vw 


Arcot. Mohur. 


104 


2 







> \ > 


105 


3 


Ar. 




,, Rupee. 


105 


4 






2 


106 


5 


M 




)l 4 " 


105 


6 


Au. 


\r\r 


,, Mohur. 


106 


7 


Ar. 




,, Rupee. 


106 


8 







" " 


106 



PLATE XI. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Au. 




Madras. SSwami Pagoda 


107 


2 







,, Porto Novo ,, 


13, 22, 










107 


3 







Old Star 


13, 14, 










107 


4 


) ) 




New double Star ,, 


14, 108 


5 


JJ 




Single , , ,, 


14, 108 


6 


M 




Mohur. 


108 


7 


M 




2 ) 


108 


8 


j > 




1 


109 


9 


Ij 




5 Rupees. 


109 


10 


> 




Bombay. Gold Rupee. 


51, 109 


11 


Ar. 




Madras' ? Charles II. 


20, 109 


12 


|| 




> i) 


21, 109 


13 


Ae. 


177x 


Bombay. Pice. 


80, 110 



PLATE XII. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


*, 

Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ae. 




Madras. 


110 


2 







>i 


111 


3 






is 


111 


4 


j> 




Madras. 40 Cash. 


111 


5 


> 




20 


111 


6 


> 




10 


111 


7 






, 6 


112 


8 






2* 


112 


9 


i 




Bengal. 1 Pie. 


113 


10 


> 




,, 2 Pai Sikka. 


112 



INDEX TO PLATES. 



121 



PLATE XIII. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ae. 




Bengal. I Pai Sikka. 


112 


2 









112 


3 









113 


4 






a 


113 


5 






f Anna. 


113 


6 






Madras. Pie. 


112 


7 


Ar. 




4 Annas. 


113 


8 


ii 




2 


114 



PLATE XIV. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ar. 




Madras. Pagoda. 


114 


2 






,, Single 


114 


3 






5 Fanams. 


114 


4 






,, Double Fanam. 


115 


6 






,, Single 


115 


6 






> 


115 



PLATE XV. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ae. 


1777 


Bombay. Double Pice. 


33, 79 


2 


> 9 


177* 


M )) 


80 


3 


II 


1777 


,, Single Pice. 


33, 80 


4 


)) 


1807 


Madras. ^ Dub. 


87 


5 


II 


1809 


Bengal. Proof. 1 Pie. 


88 


6 


|| 


M 


" " 2 ii 


88 


7 




1821 


Bombay. Pice. 


89 


8 


Ar. 




Madras? Charles II. 


20, 109 


9 


Ae. 




Bombay. Double Pice. 


110 


10 


ii 




,, Single ,, 


110 


11 


ii 




Madras. 


110 



122 



INDEX TO PLATES. 
PLATE XVI. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ae. 




Trisoolee. Pice. 


100 


2 


!> 




i) 


100 


3 


Au. 




Surat. Mohur. 


102 


4 


AT. 




,, Ku; 


102 


5 





1826 





102 


6 


,, 


n 




102 


7 


Ae. 




Bombay. ? 


110 


8 


Pb. 




Bombay. Double Pice. 


25, 29, 










110 


9 


Ar. 




Madras. 5 Fanams. 


44, 115 



PLATE XVII. 


Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ar. 




Elizabeth . Crown . 


7 


2 


,, 




,, 2 ., 


7 


3 


,, 




,, Shilling. 


7 


4 


" 




,, Six pence. 


8 





PLATE XVIII. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ar. 


1667 


Charles II. Rupee. 


19 


2 




1678 


,, ,, ,, 


19 


3 


Ae. 




,, Pice. 


19 


4 


Ar. 




, , ,, Rupee. 


19 


5 


M 


1687 


James II. ,, 


21 



PLATE XIX. 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


! 


Ar. 




George I. Madras. 3 Fanams. 


26 


2 


,, 




,, Double Fanam. 


26 


3 


Ae. 




,, Copper. 


26 


4 


Pb. 


1675? 


Charles II. 2 Cash. 


19 


5 


Ae. 


1714 


George I. Copper Coin. 


26 


6 


M 







26 


7 


9 t 






26 


8 





1728 


George II. Double Pice. 


28 


9 


)) 




George III. ,, 


33 


10 


Pb. 




)) 4 


33 


11 


Ae. 




? 




12 


j 




9 





INDEX TO PLATES. 
PLATE XX. 



123 



Fig. 


Metal. 


Date. 


Description of Coin. 


Page. 


1 


Ae. 


173z 


George II. Pice. 


28 


2 


j j 


1742 





28 


3 


> J 


1813 


George III. | Pice. 


33 


4 


Au. 


1765 


Bombay. Pattern Mohur. 


35 


5 


) j 


1770 





35 


6 


Ae. 


1793 


Proof. Copper. 


38 


7 


Ar. 


1834 


Pattern. Rupee. 


63 


8 


Ae. 




Patna Post. One Anna. 


63 


9 




1822 


Benares. Pattern. 





Plate. I. 














Plate.II. 









Plate. III. 












Plate. IV 











Plate V. 












Plate. VI. 











Pkie.VII. 





Plate.VUL 











Plate K. 










Plate .XL 












10 






Plate XH. 











Plate XUi. 










Plate XIV. 









Plate XV. 























. 

: 

/ 

S 










PJateJM. 








PkteJIX. 








o-| '-> P|, 

V ivr^. 





PkteM 












2866 4 



. MAR3 0)971 



CJ Madras. Government Museum. 

3532 Coins 

M33 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 

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